Ancient Egypt Knew No Pharaohs Nor Any Israelites


If you think that history is all about the past …  you’d better think again.

If you think the stories the Hebrew Bible had told about ancient Egypt was the whole truth … you’d better think once again.

And if you believe that ancient Egypt was ruled by pharaohs … then you’d better read the next lines

Dr. Ashraf Ezzat

King Tutankhamun

Ancient Egypt knew no Pharaohs

Prologue

The title might sound a bit strange and perplexing, but throughout the following lines I’m going to elaborate on the historical reasons why the rulers of ancient Egypt were called kings and not Pharaohs. And by straightening out this bizarre issue, the Israelite connection will eventually be exposed.

“Kings or pharaohs, what difference does it make?” some might argue.

Well, it would make a world of difference if we discovered that for thousands of years we’ve been living a myth, another twisted Jewish tale,  that we continue to cling to and hold dear as the only irrefutable truth till this very day.

It would make a world of difference if we knew that what took place at that remote period of time in the ancient Near East, particularly in ancient Egypt, has dramatically shaped, over the centuries and through our willful ignorance, the way we live today with all this web of political, ethnic and religious conflict and intolerance.  It is only by unraveling the truth and exposing the myths of that past could we untangle this web of antagonism and belligerence we currently endure.

Ancient Egypt, the rise and demise

Egypt, a nation known worldwide as the land of the pharaohs, is so embedded in history you can trace back its culture, spirituality and traditions for thousands of years way long before the world crossed the threshold of civilization; when ancient Egypt was building the great pyramids under a powerful, highly organized central government the world was still crawling out of its prehistoric ages

The thing that makes the ancient Egyptian kingdom stand out as a unique civilization in the ancient world history, besides the magnificent legacy of colossal wonders of masonry and engineering and the highly spiritual texts and moral teachings is the fact that the ancient Egyptians kept a solid and coherent documentation of their chronicles that covered the geo-political, socio-economic, military records and even covered the daily life activities in a way that left not much room for second guessing or speculation.

Civilization long shrouded in silence – David Roberts 1838

With the demise of ancient Egypt, the language of that civilization – hieroglyphs – that kept intact and thriving for well over three millennia was eventually declared extinct following the Ptolemaic and Roman period(332 BC- 395 AD)

After that, the ancient Egyptian monuments and texts had been shrouded in sheer silence and neglect.  The great civilization that had once witnessed the first dawn of human conscience and helped to shape the human code of moral conduct turned into oblivion.

For the following 1500 years too many narratives and stories had been spawned seemingly trying to retell the story of ancient Egypt, not as it actually occurred but through interpretations and manipulaions that somehow served the interests of the story tellers.

The story of ancient Egypt, the Israelite version

Of all the narratives that were told about ancient Egypt, the Hebrew Bible is the one narrative that managed to convince the world with its stories of some Pharaoh and Hebrew slaves that, it alone, monopolized the truth about the history of ancient Egypt.

Most of the scholars of the history of the ancient Near East for nearly two millennia relied primarily on the Bible as a scientific reference. And in doing so they simply followed what the Hebrew scribes wrote, or better yet tampered with in the history of ancient Egypt and blindly took it for granted.

As for the common people, who were illiterate, they fell prey to the rabbinic oral literature of Midrash and Mishnah that ceaselessly boasted about the infamous myth of Moses and pharaoh.

According to the book of Exodus, the king who ruled Egypt in Moses’ time was referred to as Pharaoh. He is addressed as Pharaoh 128 times. e.g:

When Pharaoh heard of this, he tried to kill Moses, but Moses fled from Pharaoh and went to live in Midian… [2:15]

Then the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet.” [7:1]

When Pharaoh’s horses, chariots and horsemen went into the sea, the Lord brought the waters of the sea back over them, but the Israelites walked through the sea on dry land. [15:19]

The world began to recognize Egypt, according to the Hebrew’s alleged narrative, as the land where pharaohs brutally reigned and enslaved the ancient Hebrews.  Biblical Egypt was the land that witnessed the alleged devastating ten plagues, the fictional parting of the sea and the exodus of the Israelites  — .. But if the Israelites were in such a rush to depart from Egypt why and how would they wander in Sinai, part of Egypt and heavily protected by Egyptian military garrisons, for 40 years … funny eh!

So whenever Egypt was mentioned during the last two thousands of years, the word pharaoh would simultaneously pop up in the discourse thus adding more power, allbeit deluding, to the Hebrew and Biblical designation of the rulers of ancient Egypt as pharaohs.

Ancient Egypt resurrected

Jean-François Champollion

It was not before 1822 when Jean-François Champollion, the French philologist managed to decipher the hieroglyphs in his arduous task and breakthrough of translating the Rosetta stone.

Thanks to this brilliant Champollion, the long muted and almost buried records and chronicles inscribed on stone and written on papyrus scrolls were resurrected and finally brought back to life.

What the predecessors thought of as mute masonry covered with some weird scribblings  and coffins haunted with some kind of eternal curse began to attract eager historians and modern archeologists .  Upon dusting off the ancient artifacts and temple inscriptions modern archeologists,  and for the first time, began to listen to the stone and the papyri uttering the truth about the genuine story of ancient Egypt.

In the mid-nineteenth century the genuine version of the history of ancient Egypt and the Near East was beginning to unravel as its true stories were being retold again.

Ironically enough, what the excavated records of ancient Egypt told the modern historians and archeologists was totally different from what the Hebrew narrative said.

But what struck historians as a total surprise is the fact that ancient Egyptian records had no mention of any Israelites in Egypt, non whatsoever, while the Hebrew Bible is replete with tales of Egypt. As the more of ancient Egypt texts and inscriptions were unraveled, the remoter from truth the Biblical narrative looked.

Interestingly, and as the historical findings and the non- stop archeological discoveries were in the process of resurrecting the true story of ancient Egypt the Biblical narrative kept on decomposing subjecting some of the dominant Israelite stories, like the exodus, to demolition.

The Exodus story is currently refuted by prominent modern archeologists, many of whom are interestingly Israelis. Egyptologists now view the story of the Israelites exodus as a mere myth or one of the ancient Israelite’s tales that had been somehow politically manipulated by the Hebrew scribes of the Bible.

The ancient  Egyptian royal titulary

If we went back in time and tried to find how the word “Pharaoh” claimed that worldwide popularity, we would undoubtedly have to stop before the Hebrew landmark story of the exodus from Egypt.

Was pharaoh the name of the Egyptian king, or was it his title or his epithet, that is one thing the Bible had not been clear about. But while such nuance could be appreciated in fictional works, it could never fit satisfactorily into a scientific historical account.

Tracing the etymology and the historicity of that word “Pharaoh” and for an avid reader and researcher of Egyptology who spends almost all of his weekends at the Egyptian museum in Cairo, I stumbled upon the most astonishing discovery.

I haven’t discovered a new royal mummy nor have I found the lost tomb of king Akhenaten, I simply found out, contrary to what everybody believed, that the history and the chronicles of ancient Egypt had no mention of pharaohs.

History shows that ancient Egypt only knew kings and sometimes queens but never pharaohs nor any mention of enslavement of Israelites, as a matter of fact; slavery was not a common practice in ancient Egypt and it was introduced into the late dynasties of ancient Egypt only after the Persian and the Roman conquest.

The old kingdom (2686-2181 BC) knew kings such as Djoser, Khufu and Teti , the middle kingdom ( 2055-1650 BC) had kings such as Senusret I and Senusret II and the new kingdom ( 1550-1069 BC) witnessed the topnotch kings such as Thutmose III, queen Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Usermaatre Setpenre ( Ramsses II )

Egyptian kings typically had five names, a Personal name (nomen)  which was bestowed upon them at birth and another four names- Horus name, Nebty (“two ladies”) name, Horus of Gold, Throne name (praenomen),that were not given until they took the throne.

The final four names were bestowed upon the king to officially commemorate his transformation from a mortal to a deity. The birth name of the king seems to have remained very prominent in the king’s life. It was the birth name that was primarily used in the cartouche and the name by which the king was most commonly known.

King Tutankhamun royal cartouche with his coronation name

The coronation name inside a cartouche was usually accompanied with the title nesu-bity, “King of Upper and Lower Egypt” and the epithet neb tawy, “Lord of the Two Lands”, referring to upper Egypt and delta regions of Egypt.

For example, king Tutankhamun’s throne name was Neb-Kheperu-re, which means “Lord of Manifestations of Re and was customarily accompanied by the epithet “lord of the two lands” followed by the usual benediction life, prosperity and health

According to the ancient texts and papyri, high ranking officials like high priests, princes, commanders of the army… etc, addressed the king as the ruler of the crowns, beloved of the gods, lord of the diadems, living forever and forever… but never as Pharaoh.

Not so often kings of ancient Egypt were referred to as the magnificent in earth and heaven, lord of crowns and as “the sun in the sky” and this was the ultimate titulary that reflected the ascension of the king to the realm of deities.

Etymology shows that the word pharaoh is the Greek pronunciation of the compound word ” pe-ro” or “pr –aa” which referred to the palace of the king or rather the great house and not necessarily the king himself. (Very contorversial thesis)

Some argue that during the eighteenth dynasty (sixteenth to fourteenth centuries BC) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler as is the case in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned 1353 – 1336 BC, which is addressed to ‘Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health!.

But then again, that was not entirely correct, as shown in the letters of Amarna (Tablet correspondence between the Egyptian administration during the reign of king Akhenaten (1350-1334) and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru and the state of international affairs between Egypt and the major powers of the Middle East, Babylonia, Mitanni and Assyria).

In the letters sent by the kings of Babylon and Assyria Akhentaen is addressed as the king of Egypt whereas in those sent by the Canaanite representatives he is addressed To the King my lord, my sun, my god, the breath of my life… your slave and dust under your feet. At the feet of the King my lord, my sun, my god, the breath of my life, I bowed down seven times”

The Great House vs. the White House

In their letters to the royal palace, foreign non-Egyptian subordinates & representatives were not entitled to directly address the king of Egypt, the magnificent in earth and heaven by his throne name. It was simply not their place to do so. They had to refer to him in a highly dignified and reverential designation. So it was common and accepted from a protocol point of view to refer to the king of Egypt, who presided over the skies like the sun as the one who resides in the great house or the royal palace.

In other words, it was customary and kind of required of those foreign subordinates who were not Egyptian subjects nor well instructed in the Egyptian ancient traditions and culture to refer to the king of Egypt as the great house dweller.

And as we of today refer to the president of the United States and his inner circle of high officials as the white house, in the ancient world and especially amongst the Asiatic foreigners they referred to the mighty king of Egypt and his court of priests and commanders as the great house. And just as the white house is not the title of the president of United States so the “pr – aa” was not the name of the ruler of ancient Egypt.

Never was there a papyrus or an inscription on any wall or pylon of any Egyptian temple that showed the word pharaoh as a reference to the king himself. The name of the king, as the ancient Egyptian traditions decreed, was always enclosed in a royal cartouche.

And to get a grasp of the meaning of “pr – aa” and when ancient Egyptians were inclined to use it, we could only discern that in the following lines from a hymn to the god Ra taken out from the ancient coffin texts or what is known as the book of the dead.

“Homage to thee …
o thou lord of brightness
thou who art at the head
of the great house
prince of night and of thick darkness …
he comes to thee being a pure soul …
..o, grant thou unto him
His mouth that he may speak therewith,
At the season when there are clouds
And darkness …”

                                     Verses from the ancient Egyptian coffin texts

The majestic Pyramids

As we see, the ancient Egyptian used to refer to the supreme God as the head of the great house. … That was the epithet of Amun-Re in funerary and religious texts not the king who was used to be designated as the ruler of the two lands and the beloved of gods, etc.

When ancient Egypt was brought back from the dead and resurrected by Champollion’s breakthrough, it was like a prophecy coming true.

The ancient Egyptian believed that once his name was uttered once again after his departure he would come back from the dead and live forever as immortal in the afterlife.

That’s why Egyptians cared so much about their funerary texts and coffins.

But on their journey to immortality they somehow, along the way trod on thorny grounds the Israelites covered with fake tales of ancient Egypt and the so-called pharaohs who never ruled except in the Egypt depicted by the Hebrew scribes to only serve their interests.

Epilogue

Now let’s go back in time thousands of years ago … long before any crusades, before Jesus Christ, before Alexander the great and even before the tales of the alleged twelve tribes of whom history had not rendered any records… and let us try and re-dramatize the whole thing.

Imagine yourself wandering in the arid desert for weeks in dirty and smelly rags wading through the vast and barren terrains, herding flocks of sheep starving for any sign of green weeds and yourself feeling no less hungry or exhausted under the blazing sun with nothing on your mind except a bite to eat and a shady tree to retire under… and all of a sudden you spot on the distance fields of green, flowing rivers, military garrisons, busy markets, sheltered farmhouses and huge temples .. and at the far background  the sun was leaving the sky silhouetting the mighty pyramids with its golden caps (pyramidion)

This must have been a jaw dropping and day dream-like sight for any shaggy, smelly, itchy and semi-barbaric nomad in the proto-historic time no matter how Jewish or how preferred and meticulously chosen by Yahweh he was.

… Standing barefoot and dwarfed by the colossal royal palace of Egypt’s king, the homeless nomad asked in amazement “what is this?”

“pr – aa” answered one of the royal guards at the entrance of the palace while ordering him to step aside and walk away.

And walk away he did, but on his way back to his tribe in the barren rocky terrains, as he was exiting Egypt, this Hebrew Shepherd could hardly wait to tell his concocted story of the unbelievable land of “Pr – aa”

.. A fictitious story, crammed with fallacies and fairy tales that permeate with a noticeable sense of malevolence and envy … but what’s astonishing about this ancient Israelite story -or hate speech if you will- is that it still lives, hallowed and indisputable, with us till this very day.

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145 thoughts on “Ancient Egypt Knew No Pharaohs Nor Any Israelites

  1. How very interesting! We know the Hebrew scribes made stuff up to frighten the uneducated people into doing whatever they wanted. We know that Israel still hates Egypt and blames them for years of slavery etc. This certainly changes all that history.

      • I concur. It was, if anything, a analogy of walking forty years in the desert – going away on a journey, finding yourself – discovering your truth, Moses was at his third and final 40 year period of age from 80-120 years.

      • anyone who conquered another civilization back then took slaves! a child could figure that out!

      • It amazes me at how this analogy has been made to be supportive of truth especially after all of this time and research. People have fallen the lie of this matter…in fact…people have become lazy and instead of doing their own research and finding out for themselves, they’d rather sit somewhere and let someone tell tell them that this was so instead of using their own due diligence and researching the matter for themselves. For many, ignorance is bliss.

    • How can you be FROM Egypt and be an Egyptian slave? The Israelites where from Egypt, Moses was a prince of Egypt and high priest and the Israelites were his followers so they were Egyptian which means that all people called “Jews” today are descendents of Egyptians. Their religion is based on Egyptian mysticism every part of the bible comes from Egyptian, Greek, Babylonian and Sumeria sources. Jews are a made up people with a fake version of Egyptian religion.

      • it does not penetrate your thick skull that there was not Mosses, not jewish slaves in Egypt and all current ‘history” is crap invented by ASKE – NAZI crimi8nals just like lies about alleged holocaust.Aske _- nazis murderers killed more than 10 millions Ukrainians by starving them more than 80 million Russians and started all wars and revolutions in the past 700 yearsand continue to this day

    • Today’s jews are Kazarians and today’s Egyptians are from many years of being watered down with Greek or Roman blood. Ancient Hebrews and Egyptians where of darker hue.

  2. I am having to rethink a lifetime of connection with the history of Egypt. Of course mine was more connection with the common people, the arts, and spirit, the way people lived. I never dreamt I was royalty reincarnated or such. At 14 my favourite ever novel was “The Egyptian” by Mika Waltari.

    And when I was a young woman, my idea of a romantic afternoon was being caught in a snowstorm in the Royal Ontario Museum with a date, and of course a picnic. I spent hours immersed in walls of stolen hieroglyphics, IE one from the tomb of Hatshepsut, just thinking of those times so long ago.

    I watched the Hollywood pap movies, starved for visuals but never felt I was watching the truth. But then, all my life I had a profound distrust of anything thrust upon people, just a suspicious sort and it has proven me right over the years.

    And now this. THank you for your work here. A LOT to think about and absorb. If you do not mind, I would like to post this on my blog because I have a few readers who are interested in the past.

    And btw, consider, if the Israelis are so desperate to control media now, as they have attempted regarding Gaza, or WW2, or WW1 or ANYTHING they have wanted to control, (yeah, I am a bit of a revisionist if, by revisionist you mean undoing the lies and putting the truth back up), why not the Bible? They rewrite whatever they can for their plans…. just as they rewrote the book they now uses as a real estate deal with God to take over the area of Palestine.

    But I digress… thank you for your work.

    • Thank you for the nice words and of course you could post it at your colorful and well designed bolg.
      ..As a matter of fact, I liked the way my post looked on your blog.
      .. The Israelites committed the ultimate sin, they had tampered with ancient history, and what makes it unforgivably grave is the fact that most of us still believe it and embrace it as the unshakeable truth.
      .. My best.

      • All quite interesting, Dr. Ezzat. Thx for this thought provoking article & the other I just read in VT.

        Yes, quite true. It seems lies are part of their existence. They also commissioned the “Scofield Bible” in the early 20th Century, with many made-up details serving their interests, eventually entering them info the actual Bible.in the ’60’s.

        I’m not familiar with the Qur’an, but how do most Muslims react to what you write here considering they base it on Judaic teachings.

        Also, no way is the Jewish Bible the most ancient of scriptures, as someone has written below, for the “Bhagavad Gita” of Hinduism, meaning the Song of God, was in existence at least 5000 yrs BC.

    • You read Waltari? Then you know of the Aten worship.
      Some scholars, such as Sigmund Freud, have pointed out the obvious implausibilities on the Moses story and have sugge3sted that “Moses”, an Egyptian word meaning “Prince” may have been another name for the heretic Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV), and the story of the Exodus a highly romanticized telling of his attempted return from exile, with the usual spin so that failure to reclaim his throne is sold to later generations as a symbolic victory.
      ———————————————————————
      The whole point is, the “jews” are exiled ATEN worshippers who “morphed” from being peace-lovers to venomous war-mongers from resentment over being ousted from power in Egypt. Palestine was a PROVINCE of Egypt, so how could anyone “escape” to it and “conquer” it?! They were EXILED to it.
      ———————————————————————
      Moses was “raised” as an Egyptian Prince, because Moses WAS an Egyptian Prince. As a matter of FACT, the “Hebrews” are EGYPTIAN.
      The Hebrews, the participants of the fabled Exodus, were EGYPTIAN refugee worshipers of ATEN, the MONOTHEISTIC Egyptian LIGHT God.
      After Amenhotep IV aka Akenhaten elevated Aten to THE god of Egypt (THOU SHALT HAVE NO OTHER GODS BEFORE ME)
      the priests of Amon and the lesser gods worked to undermine Aten. Upon the death of Pharoh Akenhaten, the “ONE” god, Aten, was
      overthrown. The temples and all trace of Aten were pulled down and erased. The followers of Aten were persecuted and harrassed.
      After some years of this, the followers of Aten made an “exodus” (a going out) from Egypt, to the COLONIES of Egypt in Palestine.
      ————————————————————————–
      NOTE: It is not called a HOMECOMING or RETURN, as it would have been if the participants were SEMITES originally from Palestine.
      They THEMSELVES termed it an EXODUS. [EX out of, from, and HODOS, way]
      This is people who WERE Egyptian and LEFT, went OUT OF Egypt.
      ————————————————————————–
      The followers of Aten wandered in the desert for years (40?). They assimilated legends, myths, and People, into their Religion and Tribe.
      The first generation of refugees passed on, and their religion morphed from a “loving, peace, LIGHT and enlightened god”
      to a vengeful, resentful, scab-picking War god.
      THIS is why there is NO Egyptian archeological evidence of a Jewish/Semitic presence OR exodus.
      The Exodus consisted of EGYPTIANS leaving Egypt in the face of religious persecution that included the complete erasure of the God of the Exodus, ATEN.

      How else could one explain what is clearly written in the Bible itself:
      For millenia the Jews(Egyptian Refugees) have WAILED about their abject slavery under “Torturous, Inhumane” conditions in Egypt.
      Name ONE other “religion” that has a HOLIDAY celebrating the genocide of the CHILDREN of their opponents?
      THAT is what “Passover” is. They are celebrating the deaths of the First Born children of the Egyptians.
      More then that, they are celebrating revenge on the Worshipers of Aton for overthrowing their god Aten.

      Let us take a little look at the abject, “slaves” in Egypt:
      How is it that “impoverished, abject slaves” have lambs to slaughter, flocks and herds?
      Exodus c.12 v.21
      Exodus c.12 v.32&38
      Exodus c.35 v.22-23
      How is it that “abject impoverished slaves” have neighbors with GOLD and SILVER and JEWELS to LOAN to these “slaves”
      Exodus c.3 v.22
      Exodus c.11 v.2
      Exodus c.12 v.35-36

      The god ATEN was overthrown @ 1240 B.C.
      After years of persecution the followers of Aten left Egypt IN AN EX-HODOS @ 1210 B.C.

  3. Dear Ashraf,

    I don’t know how I got to your blog, but let me tell you that I’m really happy that I did,

    Somehow you need to get your posting to greater audience, I’ve been living in the states for 25 yrs and almost fed up with the way the Isrealis control the media and filter all the news and ideas to finally come to their “dream” of concurring Egypt, but shame on us not exposing them the way you do in couple of your blogs. With the new era with free communication through the Internet we can do that, but we need to organize before getting to the public in mass because once “they” sense any risk they will react and you know how they react to anyone threaten their goals.

    Good job and keep on writing please!

    Yours, Egyptian American who still loves the Nile & Alexandria Beaches

    • Hi Egyptian,

      Glad to have received your comment.
      I agree with you that we must cooperate and join forces to expose the Zionist duplicity.
      Well, you could help by subscribing to my website email mewsletter and share my posts and the site with your contacts.

      Thank you

      Salaam

  4. I took a class in college, years ago,(62 now) called Bible as History. An ex-nun taught the class. I still remember a few things she told us about the Bible: The Moses story was really a retelling of an ancient Sumerian legend (I forget the Sumerian’s name) who was put in a basket and sent down the river and adopted. So it seems they appropriated this part of Sumerian history and changed the name to Moses. I thought at the time maybe it was accidental, now I am not so sure.
    Another thing she pointed out. In Genesis there are 2 stories of Eden. In the first the verse reads, “Male and female created He them”. Equality of the sexes? She explained that biblical scholars used what they called “strings” – a way of dating when different sections of the Bible were written by the evolutionary changes in language. According to her, the rib story was written 200 years after the original that had male/female created simultaneously.
    I am not a big believer. I find it hard to reconcile my yrs. of experience living in this world to the presented religious view that men are to be in charge of everything. I just can’t help thinking they haven’t done a very good job at it. So though I was willing to consider the existence of a God, I’ve never been able to believe that he/she/it could be the one as presented in the Old Testament.
    I enjoyed your article and hope to read more like it.

    • @ Frances Owens

      While the Hebrews boast of their Bible as the most ancient literary legacy known to mankind, modern archeology and history tell us a different story.
      The Hebrew scribes had incorporated some of the most dramatic myths of the ancient Near East into their Bible, and since there was no respect for copy rights at that remote period of time they didn’t bother to mention the source, and moreover had approprited those stories to be rewritten in their holy book as an Israelite story.
      The Moses story you mentioned is actually the Hebrew adaptation of the famous autobiography of king Sargon of Akkad.

    • Let US make man in OUR image, after OUR likeness: Genesis 1:26-27

      Without the Holy trinity, the Bible cannot be understood. Faith is a gift….pray for it.

      • Faith is a gift, and ignorance is bliss. Hold fast to them both.

        You need to realize that the whole biblical edifice, including the books, the stories, the theology, the teachings, the morality, the people and personalities, etc., are all fabricated falsehoods. And for sure, just for the sake of future arguments, you cannot use the internal claims of a fictional book or story to prove its correctness in reality.

      • Faith is the excuse people use when they have no goods reason to believe something.
        Oh and Gen also said if you eat the fruit you will die, as with so much OT -fail- also god was walking elsewhere when the walking talking snake spoke to eve, so not omnipresent – fail- and now the excuses start.

      • Something tells me someone here is unaware of the classical definition of Omnipresence.

  5. Dear Ashraf,

    I will be honest, I did not read everything you wrote (yet), I am simply too busy right now. At a later moment I will take the time to do this and also get books #1 and #4 mentioned by you.

    For now just this : studying Zecharia Sitchin (yes, I know ; a jew) for a long time and reading his 12 books at least 3 times each, got me convinced that parts of the bible (the OT) have a solid historical basis, although there is much distortion as well.

    The Israeli’s were NOT ‘god’s chosen people’, but the people chosen by a minor war lord to serve as ‘cannon fodder’ (avant la lettre) and to conquer nowadays Palestine for him, on the followers of his brother MARDUK. The real name of this ‘minor war lord’ was NOT Yahweh but NERGAL and he was not particularly ‘god the creator’.

    Nergal was a liar, didn’t keep his word, had an inferiority complex, was bold early, had a limp from birth and was not taken seriously by his peers.

    I advise you to read Sitchin and – particularly – with an open mind : for 20 years I refused to look at any of his books, believing he was crazy. Now I really regret I waited so long.

    Pls read ‘Act of god’ by Graham Phillips as well, it explains everything about the ‘plagues’ and their completely natural causes.

    By the way, the picture above does NOT show Tutankhamun, but his brother.

    The real name of Tut/Toth was NINGISZSHIDDA, he constructed the pyramids, but also Stonehenge.

    I tried to find weak spots and inconsistencies in Sitchin’s books, but they were not there. Just one mistake ; the Israelites – the Exodus indeed took place – never crossed the Red Sea, but the Sea of Reeds in the Nile Delta. From there they turned east. They stayed in the desert for a long time, because a terrible bubonic plague pandemic was wiping out people in the inhabited coastal areas by the thousands.

    You know I don’t like the zionists and their eternal lies ; I value truth above all. If by accident they for once speak the truth, I have no problem in admitting this. As some kind of ‘pantheist’ – I believe we are all part of a unified quantum field – I am not in favor of a book like the bible, so it was quite a surprise noticing not everything had been made up.

    There indeed was a FLOOD (11.000 BC) because of the unstable ice cap on the S.Pole plunging into the water and caused 8000 m high tidal waves. The real name of Noah is ZIUSUDRA and he was a Sumerian.

    Cheers,
    DCH

    PS When I was about 13 I tremendously enjoyed- like Nooralhaqiqa – Waltari’s ‘Sinue The Egyptian’ ……………

    • Hello Dirk,

      Welcome to Pyramidion.
      Interesting theories … and I have read some Sitchin, but i couldn’t go all the way through his theses for I’m not really into science fiction and pseudo-history.
      BTW, the above photo shows the golden mask of King Tutankhamun and not his brother. As a matter of fact, King Tut had no brothers
      Peace

      • Hi Ashraf,

        Thanks for reacting.

        It is a pity you don’t appreciate Sitchin, because in the 36 years since his first book was published, he has been corroborated on at least 10 different points, including (1982) a ‘brown dwarf very far away but heading direction earth’.

        You might remember Mr.Wegener and his 1916 thesis of ‘Continental Drift’, ridiculed by his fellow-scientists and costing him his career. After 60 years – when he and all his collegues had died – it became generally accepted.
        BTW Wegener postulated that there IS Continental Drift, thanks to Sitchin I understand WHY there is Continental Drift. He doesn’t discuss it, but it follows logically out of past events in our solar system, as described by him.

        Truth has nothing to do with democracy and therefore I don’t care that so few people value Sitchin’s contribution. Most in my life I have been in 100 to 1 situations and in the end – without an exception – I (the 1-minority) was proved right, although this usually lasted long – 15 years on one occasion.
        So ….. Sitchin is a true scientist, a seeker for truth, who doesn’t stop at the point where he starts undermining his own (and others’) religion.

        You don’t give facts against him either : just qualifications like ‘science-.fiction and pseudo-history’.
        I really TRIED to prove him wrong, but couldn’t. His case is strong.

        Apart from this : the official version of EVERYTHING stinks, whether it is medicine, global warming, Egyptology/history, whatever.
        I used to believe that the horrors of the holocaust were true – 6 million, gas chambers, ovens, etc – now I know that it is just a bunch of (very profitable) zionist lies.

        I’ll check the details of the mask, from whom it really is. It is definitely not Tutankhamun, although official Egyptology claims so.

        Cheers,
        dch

  6. I would like to read book (s) which challenge the historicity of the Old Testament in a comprehensive manner. Can you suggest such books? Thanks.

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  12. Interesting the hebrew narrative won out: jews enslaved by egyptians, etc.
    Looking at the evidence, the same can be said of the “holocaust” and third reich germany.

  13. Pingback: Debunking the Israelite Myth: Ancient Egypt Knew No Pharaohs « Pyramidion « Scottwb1973's Blog

  14. Israel’s “claim” to Palestine is based entirely on War Crimes and GENOCIDE.
    It is UNFAIR and WRONG to compare Israel to the Nazis.
    The CORRECT comparison is Nazis to Israelis:
    The Nazis copied the Jewish “Manual” point by point
    KILL THE SICK and CRIPPLED
    Numbers c.5 v.2-4
    KILL HOMOSEXUALS
    Leviticus c.20 v.13 well, really the whole chapter
    KILL ALL DISSIDENTS:
    Exodus c.32 v.27
    Numbers c.11 v.1-2
    Numbers c.16 all
    Numbers c.21 v.5-6
    Numbers v.26 v.10
    KILL anyone who engages in “DIVERSITY” or “INTEGRATION”
    Numbers v25 v.4-8
    Deuteronomy c.14 v.2
    DEHUMANIZE and then EXTERMINATE ALL NON-MEMBERS:
    Numbers c.21 v.03 Canaanites
    Numbers c.21 v.24 Amorites
    Numbers c.21 v.33-35 Bashan
    Numbers c.31 all Midianites
    Numbers c.32 v. more Amorites
    Deuteronomy c.2 v.34 People of Heshbon
    Deuteronomy c.3 v.6 really the whole chapter. threescore cities
    Joshua c.12 A list of victims of Israeli GENOCIDE
    Where are THEIR “holocaust” Memorials!
    OCCUPY YOUR VICTIM’S DWELLINGS/LAND
    Numbers c.21 v.25
    Numbers c.32 v.39
    Numbers c.33 v.53
    (just to name a FEW)
    GENOCIDE CODIFIED IN THEIR RELIGION
    Numbers c.33 v.31-34
    Deuteronomy c.7 v.2
    Deuteronomy c.12 v.28-30
    Deuteronomy c.20 v.11-16
    TERRORISM CODIFIED IN THEIR RELIGION
    Deuteronomy c.2 v.2
    Deuteronomy c.7 v.1
    Jews SELF-anointed “The CHOSEN People of GOD”
    Nazis SELF-anointed “The GENETICALLY CHOSEN People of God”.

  15. Yes you are Semi-Correct in that it was used as a word to describe the ” Great House” – Though by the middle of the 18th dynasty was a term widely and almost exclusively used to denote the King. So pharoah is/was a term used in describing the ruling king of Egypt!

    • If we’re talkinng 18th dynasty, then, we have to re-examine the Amarna letter- royal correspondence of the court of king Akhenaten. And in those letters, I assure you, Akhenaten was never addressed as pharaoh.

      • Pharaoh, meaning “Great House”, originally referred to the king’s palace, but during the reign of Thutmose III (ca. 1479–1425 BC) in the New Kingdom, after the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, became the form of address for a person who was king[5] and the son of the god Ra. “The Egyptian sun god Ra, considered the father of all pharaohs, was said to have created himself from a pyramid-shaped mound of earth before creating all other gods.” (Donald B. Redford, Ph.D., Penn State) [6]

        The term pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-ꜥ3, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr “house” and ꜥꜣ “column”. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-aa ‘Courtier of the High House’, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace.[7] From the twelfth dynasty onward the word appears in a wish formula ‘Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health’, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.

        The earliest instance where pr-aa is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned c. 1353–1336 BCE, which is addressed to ‘Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health!.[8] During the eighteenth dynasty (sixteenth to fourteenth centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late twenty-first dynasty (tenth century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler’s name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative.[9]

        From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as hm.f, ‘Majesty’. The term therefore evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty.[citation needed]

        For instance, the first dated instance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler’s name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-first dynasty kings. Meanwhile the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-aa continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.[citation needed]

        By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence comes Ancient Greek φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin pharaō. From the latter, English obtained the word “Pharaoh”. Over time, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ and then rro (by mistaking p- as the definite article prefix “the” from Ancient Egyptian pꜣ).[10]
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh

  16. The Maori of New Zealand tell a different story.
    They say they originally were from Assyria
    They say they had to leave Assyria
    because of famine.
    They went to Egypt where they hired onto construction
    projects. They were known as great builders.
    After a time they tired of Egypt.
    They had a great leader named Mohi.

    After several plagues which the Egyptians associated
    with them, they returned to Assyria.

    They overpopulated their old homeland in Assyria
    They went north through the land of the
    and Scythians then west
    The Maori claim to be Brown Maoris.
    They claim that white Maoris constantly harassed
    them on their way west and would
    not let them settle.


    Maori Symbolism(1926) by Etta Rout

  17. As a child I stood a few feet away from King Ramses I founder of the 18th Dynasty and father of Ramses II. It was at Niagara Falls in a curio museum. Of course it was not known at this time, the 1950s that the mummy was of royal birth. Ramses I was identified many years later. Apparently the position of his crossed arms identified him as a royal.

    I have also had the priviledge of viewing the Rosetta Stone in London, England. Very awesome.

    Having casually read and studied Egyptology for years has led me to wonder the following. Why is Tutmosis (born of Toth) pronounced Tut-Mosis while Ramses (born of Ra) prounced Ram-e-sess? Should he not be known as Ramses (ra-
    moses)?

    Does mosis (moses) mean born of?

    • No, it doesn’t.
      Tuthmosis (Born of the god Thoth) is the Greek name for this warrior king. He is also known as Thutmose III, or Thutmosis. But his Egyptian Throne name was Men-kheper-re (Lasting is the Manifestation of Re). And like wise, Ramses II’s throne name is (USERMAATRE-SETEPENRE)

      • Dr. Ashraf Ezzat,

        So is it safe to assume that mosis (moses) is of greek origin and was not extant as a word or royal title in ancient Egypt?

        Also thank you for an informitive and well written article. I look forward to more of the same.

        Peace

  18. you really need to check out the work of alan wilson and baram blackett as well as the history of the stone of destiny…the ten tribes included the Welsh/Cymru people who trace their lineage back to solomon and back even before him to moses…also, the stone of destiny, from the strata of Bethel somehow made its way to Tara then to Westminster Abbey before being stolen in the 50s by Scottish nationalists

    history is much more complex and palpable than you portray it here. btw, i have only mentioned a small sampling of the evidence suggesting the true Israelites were in Wales until outsiders usurped the kingdom around 1300

    also, any archaeological dates relating to egypt are completely made up because of fudge factors added into the carbon dating formulas…veilikovsky should be a good resource as wells as wilson and blackett

    • – the so-called “Lost Tribes” were the Tribes that STAYED in Babylon when the rest returned to Palestine from their “captivity”. They were LOST TO ISRAEL. They decided their horrible captivity in Babylon was preferable to going back to Palestine. This is all well known. There were no other “lost tribes”.

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  20. This is quite the read, I must say. Funny thing… Topple the basic premises of Judaism and you topple the premises of Christianity and Islam. Not only is Hebrew history changed, all of Western history changes. What to do…. Hmmm…

    Good stuff. Not certain of the complete validity. Would have to do more research. But interesting nonetheless.

  21. Is there a possibility that the Hebrew legend of the Exodus is actually a racial memory of being part of the Hyksos invasion of Egypt and their occupation of Lower Egypt? The Hyksos invaded from the East and when they were driven out they returned to the East. Some, undoubtedly remained as workers and may well have departed later, but certainly NOT at the time the Hebrews claim, As far as I am aware slavery was introduced into Egypt by invaders far later than the OT account would have us believe.

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  23. I find it interesting that no references or external sources of any kind were used to create this seemingly enlightening opinion. I also find it interesting that the author spent the majority of the time using intellectual jargon (with some minor grammatical errors) to bash evidence for biblical history instead of doing some quality research on Egypt and valid archeological finds. I was trying to do research on Ancient Egypt for my art history class and came upon this website. It is amazing what you can unintentionally find on the internet…

    • Right you are, Mrs. Mckoy, it is really amazing what, and who, you can occasionlly bump into on the cyber space. I think you need to re-read my piece … and pay special attention to those chracters in blue, called links.

  24. Pingback: Ancient Israel, as we know it, never existed! | Pragmatic Witness

  25. Hi Dr. Ashraff, I found it interesting reading your piece, but I am still sceptical whether the bible we read today is not distorted by the selfish Israelis. Please help me with some details. Please make more effort to reach wider audience, as time dissipates, the jewish long planned conspiracy will be exposed. More grease to your elbows!

  26. Hi Dr. Ashraf Ezzat,

    Thank you for this illuminating post on ancient Egypt! I study archaeology, but this I did not know. Thanks for clearing things up! I share your blog on my fb.

    All the best,
    Remco

  27. With all due respect to you Dr., you have only supported the thesis that the ancient Hebrews honored the office of the Egyptian King by calling him Pharaoh. As you state:

    “…refer to the president of the United States and his inner circle of high officials as the white house, in the ancient world and especially amongst the Asiatic foreigners they referred to the mighty king of Egypt and his court of priests and commanders as the great house. And just as the white house is not the title of the president of United States so the “pr – aa” was not the name of the ruler of ancient Egypt.”

    The Hebrews used this honorific—just as you state above—to address or refer to him indirectly, so as not to invoke one of his five royal names. If you would read any of the accounts of interaction related in the Torah between such figures as Abraham, Joseph and Moses, the never addressed the Egyptian ruler as anything but “King” (melekh in Hebrew) or Paro. In fact, there is a misconception that the Torah mentions Pharaoh Rameses, a name that appears only four times in the Torah—all four references to Rameses are simply geographic designations of a district in the Nile Delta sometimes called “Goshen” or “Kessen”.

    On a very mundane level, you and I both know that the ancient Egyptian word for the ruler was obviously not “king” and just as the Torah was written for a people who spoke Hebrew it follows that Hebraic words were employed–in the very same way that I’m not using the French word “roi” because I’m not writing for a French reader. The Torah therefore employs the honorific recognized for its intended Hebrew reader.

    Finally, you also know that, beginning with the Old Kingdom, the king was worshipped as the Great Bull, so have you ever considered that due to the shared origins of ancient Hebrew and Egyptian that the origin of the Hebrew word “Paro” was a combination of the Hebrew word “par” meaning a cow or a bull and “rah” meaning great?

    • Mr. Long,

      Thank you for your interesting comment.
      Your thesis is somehow incorrect; the kings of ancient Egypt during the time of Abraham, Joseph and Moses are constantly addressed with the title ‘Pharaoh’ in the Bible.
      According to the book of Exodus, the king who ruled Egypt in Moses’ time was also referred to as Pharaoh. He is addressed as Pharaoh 128 times.
      And one more thing, I don’t agree to your hypothesis that Ancient Egyptians and Hebrews had shared origins.
      Greetings

      • Dr. Ezzat,
        You have somehow misunderstood my post, read it again, I stated, “…. such figures as Abraham, Joseph and Moses, the never addressed the Egyptian ruler as anything but “King” (melekh in Hebrew) or “Paro”

        Read the last word…it’s ” Paro” —-PARO is the Hebraic and original pronounciation of the the word “Pharaoh”.

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  29. Ezekiel 29:12
    King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
    And I will make the land of Egypt desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate, and her cities among the cities that are laid waste shall be desolate forty years: and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries

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  31. It’s nice to see real research again. It’s been too long. I’ve shied away from my archaeology the last few years. It’s the little details that help put the past into a different light that always fascinated me when I was young. The constant battle against darkness makes us forget to find that soft small light. I’m going to have to delve deeper into your work.

    I fail to see the need for the Jewish bashing from some of your readers. All religions are puffed up myths to empower a small group of corrupt and generally useless individuals.

    I see the point to try to set the record straight factually, but the facts are enough without the venom. As a people they produce good along with the bad. For every Netanyahu there’s a Charlie Chaplin, or Mel Brooks. For every Cheney there’s a George Carlin or Gore Vidal. Well one would hope that. We do seem to be running out of our supplies of great thinkers with good hearts, and running a surplus on war mongers, and bankers.

      • Just to clarify : I didn’t think that was your intent. Your work is scholarly in the best sense. An effort to arrive at something approaching truth without bringing along the baggage of, “Well that’s what the Bible says, so it must be true.”

        Was trying to tone down the more anti-Semitic rantings. (Yes I realize that the vast majority of Jews are not at all Semitic, but everyone needs to call themselves something.) As the more bellicose fail to realize the damage such a stance can to take on your work. Yours is a precarious enough position to take without supporters adding direct verbal attacks against a people as diverse in opinion as Gilad Atzmon and Ariel Sharon.

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  33. Your article is great, i havent finished it all, but i would hint to something important:
    First:Most archaeologists who work in egypt run by biblical and jewish agenda, they spread the lies that Egyptian civilization is pharaohs. Pharaoh name never existed in ancient egypt.

    Second: Most translations of hieroglyphics about ancient egypt is total false, we find many and many contradictions, There is a big conspiracy, archaeologists stick various statues hold features of different people in name of one king, they brainwash us.

    Third Point and that’s all about: The history of israelites and pharaoh king or nation was not mentioned in ancient egypt because the hieroglyphic letters and artifacts and ancient egyptian monuments all belong to earlier dates, The archaeologists made great lies about the dates of egyptian kings and history completely.

    Fourth: The language of pharaoh and israelites in egypt was probably coptic language not ancient hieroglyphics.

    fiveth: The age of pyramids and most stuff belong to over 100000 B.c, they limited egyptian history to only 7000 years old by their hypocrisy

  34. Hi,

    Thank you for your article. It is so refreshing to hear that you are not interested in Science fiction nor Pseudo-science. I can’t stand it!
    Anyway, I have been studying mythology and ancient religions for a while and I still have more questions than answers. You have recommended The Dawn of Conscience by James Henry Breasted. I have learned a hard way to check about the author before I read. I have found quite interesting information about J. H. Breasted .

    “Over the next three decades, Breasted would excavate a series of sites in Egypt, the Sudan and the Near East. He would also develop an important ability to identify rich and influential benefactors and to gain their confidence without resorting to sycophancy. Such an approach was, in the absence of government funding, the only way to get things done. Notable among the Maecenas figures he cultivated was John D. Rockefeller.

    With two other books, “The Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt” (1912) and “The Dawn of Conscience” (1933), Breasted broke more controversial ground. These books arose out of the author’s struggle with conventional religion. Though he never entirely lost his belief in God, he subsumed it into a narrative of mankind’s continuous progress, spiritual as well as moral. This perspective may seem dated nowadays, but it was influential at the time. Theodore Roosevelt was an admirer of “Religion and Thought,” while “The Dawn of Conscience” so impressed Sigmund Freud that he went on to write an even more controversial work, “Moses and Monotheism” (1938). Freud was fascinated by archaeology, which he saw as a metaphor for exploring the layers of the human psyche, and his debt to Breasted is clear.”
    http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204012004577073252377647554.html

    It is interesting that John D. Rockefeller was his Maecenas and Sigmund Freud, Ashkenazi Jew, was impressed with The Down of Conscience. Though provoking.

  35. THE FAKE JEWS CREATED THE MASONS AND ALL SECRET SOCIETIES NOT CREATED BY THE MONEYCHANGERS WERE TAKEN OVER BY 1717 AND ALL NEW ONES WERE CREATED BY THEM. THIS ISN’T BASHING. THIS IS SAYING, “THE TORA” IS HEBREWISM. A DEAD RELIGION. THE NEW TALMUD RELIGION CALLED JUDAISM IS A REACTIONARY RELIGION TO CHRISTIANITY. CHRISTIANITY IS OLDER THAN JUDAISM.

  36. I LIKE YOUR WORK. I DISAGREE WITH ABOUT 25% OF IT. I’M RELATED TO MAJ GENERAL ISRAEL PUTNAM, BERNARD THE DANE AND CHARLEMAGNE. THEREFOR CHARLES THE HAMMER MARTEL.

  37. I KNOW THE OLD SECRETS. THEY ARE USELESS SECRETS. BUT THAT’S WHAT THEY AGREED TO DO, GO BACK TO THE MYSTERY RELIGIONS BECAUSE IT IS BEST FOR CONTROL AND DUMBING DOWN OF MASSES. THIS IS ONE BIG CONSPIRACY. LEARN THE MOST BY LISTENING TO SPEECHES BY BENJAMIN FREEDMAN AND MYRON FAGAN. TWO MEN, TWO SPEECHES, ON YOUTUBE.

  38. DR. YOU REPLIED THAT MOSES DOESN’T MEAN “BORN OF”. I MUST DISAGREE. NO BIG DEAL, IT’S JUST THAT IT DOES MEAN JUST THAT….IT’S NOT EVEN CONTROVERSIAL. I DON’T GET IT….???? HAHHHA

  39. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed
    account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.

  40. Actually I believe Egyptian kings began going by “Pharaoh” about the time of the Eighteenth dynasty, according to Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton. That is, after Hatshepsut’s reign 1479–1458 BC. Considering that the Exodus took place around 1450-1440 BC it makes absolute sense that it would refer to the Egyptian king as Pharaoh. It doesn’t make sense that hieroglyphs would make mention of the Hebrews since hieroglyphs were so often religion-based prayers (for longevity, prosperity, etc) or exaggerated accounts of various military/social victories rather than detailed historical accounts that could be embarrassing. On the other hand, the Bible if full of detailed but embarrassing depictions of Hebrews as deceptive, fearful, rapists, murderers, and usurpers.

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  42. Some of these comments seem very logical except if you accept the story of the exodus and the circumstances leading up to it you have to acknowledge them all and not just the ones that fit the theory you wish to put forward.Firstly there were no jews in Egypt before the Exodus only Canaanites who went down 400 years earlier to escape their own perilous situation of drought. These people were monotheistic nomads who lived in the area of goshen within the Egyptian empire they became more and more numerous and played as you would expect a greater part in Egyptian society and its administration they were probably favoured as it their predecessor Joseph who had saved Egypt form famine by hoarding food supplies over the years so that the Kingdom survived in tact. As with many immigrant communities they clustered and became the butt of jealousy and prejudice eventually this situation became more and more heightened and the Egyptians looked upon this community no matter how assimilated they had become as a future threat and this led to the slaying of male babies and the subsequent story of Moses in the basket story. so on and so on. When these people left Egypt they had been subjugated to the same practices of persecution as manyl immigrant communities in history the world over have been and the story of the exodus is about their liberation no more and no less. These people received the 10 commandments during their sojourn in the dessert and they agree to live by them and from that day forward that made them different to other people in the ancient world. The land of Israel didnt exist as such and different tribes and civilisations fought over territories in the area constantly and the establishment of Isreal only took place after these people had survived a further 40 years in the dessert and conquered and area that was considerably larger than what is now called Isreal. however the size of Isreal has never been fixed for very long and was always subject to attack and invasion throughout history even after its establishment, the building of the temple in Jerusalem marks the arrival of the Judaic dynasty in the area and this dates back more than 3500 years ago.

  43. What untruths this webpage presents!!!. The title Pharoah goes right to the beginning of the 1st dynasty with Menes. His designation in the Sumerian and Indian king lists is ‘Prabhu’ which is the ancient root of the semitised word Pharoah, which means ruler, master or lord. Refer to Waddell for a proper scholarly exposition of this fact. I read ancient Sumerian and verify Wadell’s assertions are correct.
    As to saying the Israelite Exodus never occurred – it will be a shock to some to discover, that reports of it are recorded in the extremely ancient Armenian History. Never once did Egypt report its disaster – or certainly not in context – so the astute look elsewhere – and that takes a bit more effort than clearly some are prepared to make to find the whole truth.

  44. In reply to Dr. A.D. Boyd-Lee
    You must be kidding, right. With no trace of the word ‘Pharaoh’ in the Egyptian records, you recommend that we look somewhere, like in the Sumerian or, for laughing out loud, the Indian records. As for the mention of Exodus in some ancient Armenian History, which you think would shock some of us, I’d say .. please do shock us .. and cite one credible scientific source that verify your funny claims. …Prabhu!!

  45. Just want to say your article is as astounding.
    The clearness for your put up is simply nice and i can think you’re knowledgeable on this subject. Well along with your permission let me to snatch your RSS feed to stay updated with coming near near post. Thank you one million and please continue the enjoyable work.

  46. For years, the popular media has mocked the biblical accounts of Joseph, Moses, the Passover, and the Exodus as being completely incompatible with standard Egyptian chronology. Year after year, we have been told by numerous scholars that events recorded in the books of Genesis and Exodus are nice legends devoid of any historical or archaeological merit.
    However, a new wind is blowing. An emerging pool of scholars, representing diverse backgrounds, has been openly calling for a drastic reduction in Egyptian chronology. Such a reduction would serve to line up the historical and archaeological records of Egypt and the Old Testament. Surprisingly, there is a substantial amount of evidence to warrant a significant reduction of Egyptian history. And by doing so, the reliability of Genesis, Exodus, and the entire Old Testament will have to be reconsidered as a viable source of historical truth.
    Advocates of chronological revision
    Those who advocate a revision of orthodox Egyptian chronology are admittedly in the minority, but their credentials and scholarship are highly esteemed. David Rohl, author of Test of Time, suggests ‘Ramses II should be dated to the tenth century BC—some three hundred and fifty years later than the date which had been assigned him in the orthodox chronology.’1 Peter James and four other scholars published the book Centuries of Darkness.2 They claim that the dates of Egyptian dynasties need to be reduced by hundreds of years, specifically Dynasties 21–24. Dr Colin Renfrew, professor of archaeology at Cambridge University, wrote a foreword to this book:
    This disquieting book draws attention … to a crucial period in world history, and to the very shaky nature of the dating, the whole chronological framework, upon which our current interpretations rest…the existing chronologies for that crucial phase in human history are in error by several centuries, and that, in consequence, history will have to be rewritten.3
    Sir Alan Gardiner, an authority on Egyptian history, admits to the inherent problems surrounding Egyptian chronology:
    Even when full use has been made of the king lists and of such subsidiary sources as have survived, the indispensable dynastic framework of Egyptian history shows lamentable gaps and many a doubtful attribution …What is proudly advertised as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags and tatters.4
    Last year, David Down (who also wrote the very relevant item ‘False History—out with David and Solomon’) and Dr John Ashton wrote Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms the Biblical Timeline. Down has performed archaeological research in Egypt, Israel, and the Middle East for nearly half a century. In their book, they propose a revised chronology that harmonizes Egyptian and Old Testament history.
    Reasons for questioning the traditional Egyptian timeline
    Astronomical assumptions
    An emerging pool of scholars, representing diverse backgrounds, has been openly calling for a drastic reduction in Egyptian chronology.
    Supposedly, lunar and solar eclipses have been discovered to perfectly match the established dates of Egyptian chronology. This is simply untrue. The concept of astronomical fixation is not based on celestial eclipses but on the ‘Sothic Cycle’. However, the Sothic Cycle is mentioned nowhere in Egyptian texts.5 There are references to ‘the rising of Sothis’ which has been assumed to have been the sighting of the bright star Sirius. The real issue is that many modern scholars theorize that the ancient Egyptians were slightly off in their calendar keeping, and when corrected in light of modern science, the dates line up accordingly. Yet the Egyptians were able to orient their pyramids to within a fraction of a degree to the north, south, east, and west. It is more likely that the Egyptians were meticulous timekeepers. Thus, in Centuries of Darkness, James and his four fellow scholars write, ‘…There are good reasons for rejecting the whole concept of Sothic dating as it was applied by the earlier Egyptologists.’ (See also our Journal of Creation article, Fall of the Sothic theory: Egyptian chronology revisited.)
    Manetho’s maze
    Another reason for questioning the traditional timeline is Manetho, an Egyptian priest who wrote a history of Egypt in the third century BC. Many consider Manetho’s writings to be indisputable fact. He was skilled at deciphering the hieroglyphs and had access to inscriptions, documents, and other valuable artifacts. However, two problems emerge. First, Manetho was writing hundreds, even thousands of years after many of the actual events. Second, none of Manetho’s writings exist.6 The only source we have for Manetho’s writings are some of his statements that have been quoted by much later historians such as Josephus, Africanus, Eusebius, and Syncellus.
    Historical sources for Egyptian chronology
    The Egyptian evidence consists of numerous inscriptions, texts, papyrus documents, and artifacts. Although it is very helpful, this evidence provides an incomplete picture of Egyptian history.
    The ancient writings of Herodotus, Manetho, Josephus, Africanus and Eusebius provide added historical insight. Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, traveled to Egypt in the 5th century BC and interviewed priests and other knowledgeable individuals. Manetho, as stated above, composed a history of Egypt for the library at Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. Josephus, the famous Jewish historian, quoted from Manetho when writing his historical anthologies in the first-century AD. Africanus and Bishop Eusebius, renowned historians writing in the third and fourth centuries AD respectively, also quoted Manetho and wrote about Egyptian history. However, all of these highly esteemed historians often disagree with one another in the calculation of Egyptian chronology.
    Because of the discordant nature of Egyptian chronology, it is impossible to present a comprehensive list of dates, pharaohs, and dynasties. Sir Alan Gardiner wrote, ‘Our materials for the reconstruction of a coherent picture are hopelessly inadequate.’ As a result, we must cross reference the Egyptian accounts with other accurate historical sources. Biblical and Assyrian chronology offer highly consistent dates that can be utilized to rectify many of the ambiguities of Egyptian history. In other words, if Old Testament and Assyrian historical records significantly overlap, then a revision of Egyptian chronology would be perfectly logical in order to harmonize with two independent reliable sources.
    Noah’s link to Egypt

    The Hebrew name for one of Noah’s grandsons is Mizraim (Genesis 10:6). It is no coincidence that modern Egyptians call themselves Misr, which is a derivative of Mizraim. According to the Book of Genesis, Noah’s grandson, Mizraim,7 is the father of the Egyptians. In a revised chronology, Egypt comes into existence soon after the dispersion from Babel, around 2100 BC. Eusebius, the famous 4th century AD historian, writes:
    Egypt is called Mestraim by the Hebrews; and Mestraim lived not long after the flood. For after the flood, Cham (or Ham), son of Noah, begat Aeguptos or Mestraim, who was the first to set out to establish himself in Egypt, at the time when the tribes began to disperse this way and that…Mestraim was indeed the founder of the Egyptian race; and from him the first Egyptian Dynasty must be held to spring.8
    In the traditional chronology, a pre-dynastic period of approximately 2,000 years precedes the first Egyptian dynasty. Genesis establishes a much shorter period of time. In addition, the 1988–1989 annual report of the Oriental Institute of Chicago published a summary of extensive archaeological research by Bruce Williams. Williams re-examined discoveries related to the pre-dynastic period and concluded:
    Both articles are part of an expanding body of evidence that links the period once known as ‘predynastic’ so firmly to the ages of the pyramids and later, that the term should be abandoned.9
    Williams has published several articles in archaeology journals, and his modern research appears to confirm the Genesis account.
    Abraham visits Egypt
    The biblical date for the Exodus is approximately 1445 BC. Exodus 6:4 and Galatians 3:16–17 tell us that the Lord made a covenant with Abraham 430 years earlier, around 1875 BC. Not long after this date, Abraham traveled to Egypt to escape a severe famine in the land of Canaan (Genesis 12:10). Abraham’s visit did not go unnoticed, as Pharaoh’s officials reported to their king that Abraham’s wife, Sarah, was extremely beautiful. Out of fear, Abraham told Pharaoh that Sarah was his sister. As a result, Pharaoh temporarily inducted Sarah into his harem and paid Abraham many expensive gifts. However, the Lord struck Pharaoh’s house with plagues causing him to release her upon discovering that she was actually Abraham’s wife.
    Abraham came from Ur of the Chaldees (Genesis 11:31). From 1922 to 1934, Sir Leonard Woolley discovered it to be the first civilization10 with a superior knowledge of astronomy and arithmetic. In addition, the Sumerian civilization invented writing, composed dictionaries, and calculated square and cube roots.11 Woolley’s discoveries appear to corroborate the writings of Josephus concerning Abraham’s visit to Egypt Josephus writes about Abraham:
    He communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for before Abram came into Egypt they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt.12
    In a revised chronology, Abraham would have visited Egypt when Khufu (aka Cheops) was Pharaoh. Before Khufu, the early Egyptian pyramids were fantastic architectural structures, but they were not perfectly square or exactly oriented to all four points on a compass. However, when Khufu built his masterful pyramid, there appears to have been an explosion of astronomical and mathematical expertise. Khufu’s pyramid was perfectly square, level, and orientated to the four points of the compass.
    When placed in the proper dynasty, Abraham’s visit to Egypt may have been the catalyst that sparked an architectural revolution in Egyptian history.
    Joseph rises to power in Egypt
    Dynasty 12 was one of the high points in Egyptian history. By a revised chronology, Joseph would have risen to power under Sesostris I during this dynasty. According to Genesis, Joseph was one of Jacob’s twelve sons. Out of jealousy, Joseph’s brothers sold him to Midianite traders and these traders sold Joseph to an Egyptian officer named Potiphar. Eventually, through a period of trials and tribulations, the Lord enabled Joseph to rule over Egypt, second only to Pharaoh himself.

    Sesostris I is known to have had a vizier, or prime minister, named Mentuhotep who possessed extraordinary power Egyptologist, Emille Brugsch, writes in his book Egypt Under the Pharaohs, ‘In a word, our Mentuhotep…appears as the alter ego of the king. When he arrived, the great personages bowed down before him at the outer door of the royal palace.’13 Brugsch’s description appears to corroborate Joseph’s status in Genesis 41:43, ‘He (Pharaoh) had him ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried out before him, ‘Bow the knee’: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.’
    Joseph’s ultimate claim to fame was his ability to interpret dreams. The Egyptians attached significant importance to dreams. Joseph was able to interpret Pharaoh’s perplexing dreams to mean that seven years of plenty would be followed by seven years of the most severe famine. Convinced by Joseph’s interpretation, Pharaoh appointed Joseph to supervise the gathering of grain during the seven years of plenty.
    Two clues from Egyptian inscriptions appear to confirm the Genesis account. First, a large relief on ‘Hungry Rock’ states, ‘…Because Hapy [the river god] had failed to come in time in a period of seven years. Grain was scant, kernels were dried up, scarce was every kind of food…’14
    Second, a tomb belonging to Ameni, a provincial governor under Sesostris I, says:
    No one was unhappy in my days, not even in the years of famine, for I had tilled all the fields of the Nome of Mah…thus I prolonged the life of its inhabitants and preserved the food which it produced.12
    Hebrew slaves in Egypt
    In the traditional chronology, the Egyptian oppression of Hebrew slaves would have occurred in the 18th dynasty. The problem is there is little to no historical evidence of Hebrew slaves in Egypt at this time. However, when placed in the 12th dynasty under a revised chronology, there is substantial evidence for Israelite slave laborers in Egypt.
    Dr Rosalie David, in charge of the Egyptian department of the Manchester Museum, writes about Semitic slavery in Kahun during the second half of the 12th dynasty:
    It is apparent that the Asiatics were present in the town in some numbers, and this may have reflected the situation elsewhere in Egypt. It can be stated that these people were loosely classed by Egyptians as ‘Asiatics’, although their exact homeland in Syria or Palestine cannot be determined … The reason for their presence in Egypt remains unclear.15
    The Bible makes it quite clear why the Israelite slaves resided in Egypt:
    Now there arose a new king over Egypt who did not know Joseph, and he said to his people, ‘Look, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we’…Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with their burdens…And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage… (Exodus 1:8-14).
    Dr Rosalie David also writes about the slave presence at Gurob, Egypt:
    The scattered documentation gives no clear answer as to how or why the Asiatics came to Egypt in the Middle Kingdom…There is nevertheless firm literary evidence that Asiatic slaves, women and children were at Gurob.16
    Another piece of circumstantial evidence that supports the biblical account is the existence of pyramids built with mud bricks and straw during this dynasty. Amenemhet III, a pharaoh whose statues are sour-faced and cruel-looking in appearance, was likely the Pharaoh who answered the complaining Hebrew supervisors, ‘You shall no longer give the people straw to make brick as before Let them go and gather straw for themselves (Exodus 5:7).’
    Another tantalizing piece of circumstantial evidence was the discovery of boxes beneath the floors of houses excavated in Kahun. Sir Flinders Petrie excavated a number of these boxes which contained the skeletons of babies up to three months old, sometimes up to three in a box.17 It is plausible that these baby skeletons are the bones of Hebrew babies killed by Pharaoh’s direct orders in an attempt to limit their population (Exodus 1:16). However, one particular baby boy would escape Pharaoh’s death sentence and change the course of Hebrew history.
    Moses is born
    According to the Book of Exodus, the baby Moses was adopted by Pharaoh’s daughter while she was bathing at the river. His parents defied Pharaoh’s order and left his destiny in the Lord’s hands, placing him in a basket to be discovered by Pharaoh’s daughter. Many consider this to be a nice story, but completely unrealistic. After all, what Egyptian princess would adopt a Hebrew slave child and offer to make him the next Pharaoh?
    However, if you place Moses in the 12th dynasty, the family history of the Pharaonic court appears to line up.18 Amenemhet III had two daughters, but no sons have been positively identified. Amenemhet IV has been proposed as the son of Amenemhet III, but he could just as easily have been the son of Sobekneferu, one of the daughters of Amenemhet III. Amenemhet IV is a very mysterious figure in Egyptian history and may have been a co-regent of Amenemhet or Sobekneferu.

    Josephus wrote concerning Pharaoh’s daughter, ‘Having no child of her own…she thought to make him her father’s successor.’ In addition, Dr Donovan Courville has proposed Sobekneferu as the foster mother of Moses. It is plausible since there is no historical record of Sobekneferu having a biological son. If Sobekneferu was the foster mother of Moses, then the biblical account of her bathing by the riverside would make sense. The river god Hapy was the fertility god of Egypt, and Sobekneferu would have likely been observing a religious ritual in the river. Perhaps the appearance of a baby floating in the river would have been interpreted as a direct answer to her prayer for a child.
    Exodus from Egypt

    In a revised chronology, Neferhotep I was likely the Pharaoh of the Exodus in the 13th dynasty. Exodus 7:10 tells us that Moses and Aaron confronted Pharaoh ‘… and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent.’ Pharaoh was not impressed ‘… so the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments. For every man threw down his rod, and they became serpents (Exodus 7:11–12).’ In the Liverpool Museum there is a magician’s rod that hails from this same period in Egyptian history.19 The rod is in the form of a long cobra Perhaps the magicians practiced some form of hypnotic power that transformed the cobra rods into the appearance of real snakes, or applied sleight of hand to substitute a real cobra for the rod.
    The ten plagues are probably one of the most famous aspects of the Exodus story. If the plagues were historical events as recorded by Moses, then there should be some fragment of evidence describing their catastrophic consequences. In fact, there is a papyrus in the Leiden Museum in Holland which provides a graphic portrayal eerily reminiscent of the biblical account. There is no consensus among archaeologists as to when it was originally penned An excerpt reads:
    … Plague stalks through the land and blood is everywhere … Nay, but the river is blood. Does a man drink from it? As a human he rejects it. He thirsts for water … Nay, but gates, columns and walls are consumed with fire…Nay but the son of the high-born man is no longer to be recognized … The stranger people from outside are come into Egypt … Nay, but corn has perished everywhere…Everyone says ‘there is no more.’20
    (See also The ten plagues of Egypt: miracles or ‘Mother Nature’?, which also thoroughly refutes the popular ‘algal bloom’ theory).
    The final plague cut Pharaoh to the heart. The Lord struck down all the firstborn in each Egyptian family at midnight. The Hebrews were warned of this horrific disaster and Moses ordered them to kill a lamb and splash its blood on their doorposts. The Destroyer would pass over every home with the blood of the lamb. It is quite significant that Neferhotep’s son, Wahneferhotep, did not succeed his father on the throne. Instead, Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobkhotpe IV ‘who occupied the throne which his brother had recently vacated.’21 To this day, historians are unable to pinpoint the reason why the son of Neferhotep I did not succeed him. Perhaps a closer look at the biblical account is necessary.
    Another piece of very interesting circumstantial evidence is the sudden departure of Kahun’s inhabitants. Dr Rosalie David writes:
    It is evident that the completion of the king’s pyramid was not the reason why Kahun’s inhabitants eventually deserted the town, abandoning their tools and other possessions in the shops and houses …The quantity, range, and type of articles of everyday use which were left behind in the houses may suggest that the departure was sudden and unpremeditated.22
    The evidence appears to confirm Exodus 12:33 which states, ‘And the Egyptians urged the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste…’
    But what happened to the mighty Egyptian army? According to the Bible, Pharaoh pursued the fleeing Israelites with his army as they miraculously crossed the Red Sea. However, the Egyptian army ended up at the bottom of the Red Sea (Exodus 14:28). It is no coincidence that the mummy of Neferhotep I has never been found.
    The Hyksos mystery solved
    Also, archaeologists and other scholars have long puzzled over the rapid occupation of Egypt by the mysterious Hyksos without a military confrontation. Those scholars advocating a revised chronology have identified the Hyksos with the Amalekites, who attacked the Israelites fleeing from Egypt. It is plausible that the Amalekites flowed into Egypt without resistance because of God’s decimation of the Egyptian army under the Red Sea.
    … when placed at the proper time, there is an abundance of historical and archaeological evidence to confirm the books of Genesis and Exodus.
    The identification of the Hyksos with the Amelekites would explain the otherwise strange passage ‘Amalek was the first of the nations’ (Numbers 24:20), and why an Egyptian would be ‘servant to an Amalekite’ (1 Samuel 30:13). This makes sense in the revised chronology where the Amalikites ruled the mighty Egyptian empire.
    Their current obscurity fulfils God’s prophecy to Moses, ‘I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven’ (Exodus 17:14). Thus hardly anyone today has even heard of them, let alone their former pre-eminence The physical extermination (see also Was this a war crime?) was first fulfilled in the time of Saul, but he disobeyed God (1 Samuel 15), so the Amalekites still caused mayhem in David’s time so he practically finished the job (1 Samuel 30).
    Conclusion
    There is a story of an older, well-respected archaeologist digging next to a young archaeologist at Gezer, Israel.23 The young archaeologist was mocking the historical reliability of the Bible when the older archaeologist quietly responded, ‘Well, if I were you, I wouldn’t rubbish the Bible.’ When the young archaeologist asked ‘Why?’ he replied, ‘Well, it just has a habit of proving to be right after all.’
    At this time of year, Christians will be bombarded with shows and magazine articles that portray the biblical accounts of Joseph, Hebrew slavery, Moses, and the Exodus as legend and myth As we have seen, however, when placed at the proper time, there is an abundance of historical and archaeological evidence to confirm the books of Genesis and Exodus.
    Synchronizing the biblical timeline with a revised Egyptian chronology will require more testing, research, hard work, and careful scholarship Presupposing biblical accuracy and applying professional research standards, a number of scholars are off to a promising start Dr Clifford Wilson, former Director of the Australian Institute of Archaeology, said it best:
    I know of no finding in archaeology that’s properly confirmed which is in opposition to the scriptures. The Bible is the most accurate history textbook the world has ever seen.24
    Related Articles
    Logistics of the Exodus
    How did they build the Great Pyramid?—an architect’s proposal
    References
    1. Rohl, David A Test of Time: The Bible: from Myth to History, p. 128, Century Limited, London, UK, 1995; see also review by John Osgood, Journal of Creation 11(1):33–35, 1997. Return to text.
    2. James, Peter Centuries of Darkness, pp. XV–XVI, Pimlico, London, UK, 1992. Return to text.
    3. James, ref. 2, p. 39. Return to text.
    4. Gardiner, Allan Egypt of the Pharaohs, p. 53, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 1964. Return to text.
    5. Ashton, J. and Down, D Unwrapping the Pharaohs: How Egyptian Archaeology Confirms The Biblical Timeline, p. 74, Master Books, Green Forest, AR, 2006. Return to text.
    6. Ashton and Down, ref. 5, p. 73. Return to text.
    7. Hebrew מצרים (mitsrayim) John Gill’s commentary, available in the Online Bible, states, ‘The word is of the dual number, and serves to express Egypt by, which was divided into two parts, lower and upper Egypt.’ Return to text.
    8. Waddell, History of Egypt and Other Works by Manetho: The Aegyptiaca of Manetho, pp. 8–9. Return to text.
    9. Sumner, William ‘Scholarship Individual Research,’ The Oriental Institute Annual Report 1988–1989, p. 62, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 1990. Return to text.
    10. Obviously, it was not the first civilization, but the first ‘re-civilization’—after the Flood. Return to text.
    11. Ashton and Down, ref. 5, p. 201. Return to text.
    12. Whiston, W., Josephus’ Complete Works, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, chapter VIII, para. 2. Return to text.
    13. Breasted, James A History of Egypt, p. 162, Scribner and Sons, New York, NY, 1954. Return to text.
    14. Ashton and Down, ref. 5, p. 84. Return to text.
    15. David, R The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh’s Workforce, p. 191, Guild Publishing, London, UK, 1986. Return to text.
    16. David, ref. 15, p. 192. Return to text.
    17. Ashton and Down, ref. 5, p. 100. Return to text.
    18. Ashton and Down, ref. 5, p. 93. Return to text.
    19. Ashton and Down, ref. 5, p. 98. Return to text.
    20. Velikovsky, Immanuel, Ages in Chaos, Vol.1, ‘From the Exodus to King Akhnaton’, pp. 25–28, Abacus, London, UK, 1973. Return to text.
    21. Edward, C.J. et al., The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. II, Part I, ‘History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800–1380 B.C.’, p. 50, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980. Return to text.
    22. David, ref. 15, p. 195 and 199. Return to text.
    23. Wieland, C., Archaeologist confirms creation and the Bible: Interview with archaeologist Clifford Wilson, Creation 14(4):46–50, 1992 Return to text.
    24. Wilson, C, Archaeologist Speaks Out, Creation 21(1):15, 1998. Return to text.

  47. Read all of what you have written and i will not lie i am very much compelled by this …..but what will you say about the Holy Quran`s version of it?

    • If the Qu’ran has a majority of its history from the Bible, and if the Bible has a majority of its history from the Torah…and if we can conclude that the Torah is a combination of multicultural myths, metaphors and similes, then the Qu’ran falls right along with the other two ‘holy’ books of scripture. If there is no way to corroborate the information outside of what is written in those books with other information, then such information cannot stand the test of truth and falls into the realm of ‘belief’ and can no longer be considered as truth.

  48. Your all Jews, and you are all crazy…you need to stop lieing about the Jews, who have done more for the world in medicine then anyone else has ….You need to back to your hole in the wall, where you crawled out of…

    • Trolling? Really? Are you seven? If not grow up. Join the conversation. Expand your intellect and your spirit. Call Dr. Ezzat wrong for facts. Call him wrong because you disagree with his or his readers conclusions , but name calling should be beneath everyone who has lived on this planet into their double digits.

  49. After reading just about all of the posts that were written here, it is still not hard for me to state with even more fact now that, when one is talking about a premier civilization, that this place (Egypt/Ethiopia) was it…earlier than Sumer, earlier than Babylon, earlier than Assyria. Taking into consideration the information the article written by Daniel Anderson and posted by Paul Moore that time needs to be reduced so that it matches up better with Biblical history, and then taking into consideration the webpage written about Immanuel Velikovsky that the time needs to be increased more than what it actually is so as not to misconstrue the radiocarbon dating mechanics is very daunting, and then you have old Edgar Casey who stated that the monuments are far older that what we really thing that they are…not by hundreds of years, but by thousands! The information that is available is insurmountable, however, it would seem like since there are some people who have come to the conclusion that there were primarily dark complected peoples living in what is now Egypt and Ethiopia (hence the Greek name of it – Land of the Burnt Faces), that it was those people who were primarily responsible for building the monuments that are still standing in those lands today…a fact that they undoubtedly do not want to continue to contend with…and because of such, such peoples have been cursed, deemed unfit or unworthy to have a history that is thoroughly draped in its right light and always have to be portrayed in a negative fashion. Through research and hard work, the information is slowly coming out…and more time is needed to tell the whole story.

    However, concerning the word “Pharoah”…I would have to concur that such a word did not exist in the Egyptian language since the word is of Greek origin and means “Great House” as is stated in many of the comments above. However, someone brought to my attention the work of Jean-François Champollion who was responsible for a lot of the translation of the Rosetta Stone and other hieroglyphics from Ancient Egypt. If he hadn’t gotten around to transcribing the images from many of the royal cartouches until the 1800s, then how do some of the names that he translated such as Ramses, end up appearing in the Bible at all even if it is the name of a place and not a person?

  50. Pingback: Exodus Buy-bull Journal Part 2 of 3 | The Buy-bull Journal

  51. An interesting journey into the etymology of “pharaoh”, my only comment would be that Judaism like all other organized religions throughout history (the religion of ancient Egypt being no exception), crafted their own history, their own story of creation and mythology to support the unification and synthesis of their people – this is true for Christianity and Islam as much as it is for the Judaism (Zorastrianism was probably used for similar purposes by the ancient Persians). Questioning the contents of the Old Testament from an historical perspective is akin to questioning the resurrection of Christ or the divine revelations of Mohammed to a certain extent, these are matters of faith. To the Jews, their history, their trials as outlined in the Old Testament, be they historically accurate or not, are what united them and unites them to this day. Usurping these tales for more than what they are – more accurately placed in the realm of myth rather than history – is simply a misinterpretation of the Old Testament and the Torah and should be called out as such. Misinterpreting them today to support political agendas or the legitimacy to property, cities or temples, well that’s either ignorance or mindful manipulation of facts to serve a political or authoritarian objective, take your pick. (Full disclosure I’m Jewish by the way, at least by blood).

    Anyway, interesting post as always and I find myself reaching back into Ancient Egypt after a sojourn into the Ancient Middle, Near and Far East as it would appear that the Egyptians are undoubtedly the oldest civilization in the world and clearly the religions of the Ancient Greeks, Babylonians, Jews and even Persians were influenced to at least some extent by Ancient Egypt.

    Respectfully
    http://www.snowconenyc.com

  52. The scriptures were never meant to be interpreted literally, they are symbolic of the evolution of the soul. Isreal Is=Issis the divine feminine, ra= ra the sun god the divine mascaline, el=god. Jesus is an archtype of the christ that is in all of us. or should I say the potential christ, the ancients understood this. Its a.matter of consciousness. a jew was one who went within to find God. The kingdom of heaven is within.

  53. Your no true historian and your research is fact less, dis proving the word pharaoh was a waste of time, pharaoh just means great house and it was just another way to say king of egypt, a common bible dictionary can tell you that, it in no way makes the scriptures a fallacy, there are records from the many great dynasties that verify the history of the israelites, look at the moabite stone, dead sea scrolls, the Sennacherib’s Prism, countless artifacts and papyrus documents with the history, tombs and records, you have nothing, and have proved nothing and have pushed it off has credible evidence, the only fake out there is all the gods of ancient egypt and all the other nations..repent if you can

  54. 80 million Egyptians today believe in the Exodus…would you rather they go back to worshiping the falcon-headed gods?

  55. Apparently someones been doing alot of reading, but not enough traveling! Egypt actually has a wall telling the story of the israelites. Also alot of information on the ancient israelites has been swept under the rug, to prevent those who are hebrews to never find out who they are unless they go searching for it. I know for a fact that israelites existed and I know who they are! Read from babylon to timbuktu! The modern day jews are europeans and arabs pretending to be hebrews and the modern day egyptians are arabs pretending to be egyptians. Don’t get tricked by the lies!

    • Here is the real Jerusalem.,,, Tanis (/ˈtænɨs/; Zoan; Ancient Greek: .
      Zion (Hebrew: ציון‎), also transliterated Sion, Tzion or Tsion, is a place name often used as a synonym for Jerusalem. Lol !!!

  56. Pingback: Second Exodus: Israelites vs. Muslim Brotherhood | Pyramidion

  57. Pingback: Second Exodus: Israelites vs. Muslim Brotherhood | murderbymedia

  58. Pingback: Exodus: Israelites’ Enduring Deception | Pyramidion

  59. This is actually interesting but lacks evidence? Why would you post a story with NO credible evidence? Wheres the proof at? ALL i see here is some hate for JEWS lol……….are you serious??? Where’s the writing’s at? How about some books that back it all up? Or walls with that information??? Give me a break

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