In Ancient Egypt, Canaan revisited without Israel


“Take Egypt out and the whole structure of the Israelites’ tale would instantly fall.”

Dr. Ashraf Ezzat

Did you know that Egypt is mentioned in the Holy Bible approximately 700 times (Egypt: 595 times, Egyptian(s): 120 times).

Obviously, Egypt must have played a vital role in the history of the Hebrews otherwise it wouldn’t have been such a recurring theme in the Jewish holy book.

Egypt was, and still is, the magnificent overture to the Israelites’ story. Take Egypt out and the whole structure of the Israelites’ tale would instantly fall.

The land of the Nile has been the theater for the Israelites’ epic stories of alleged enslavement, divine retaliation, wandering in the wilderness and finally a breath-taking and logic-defying exit.

But on the other hand, do you know how many times Israel or the Israelites were mentioned in the ancient Egyptian records? … Well, and according to history and the ancient Egyptian meticulous records – get ready for the surprise- once or … maybe none at all.

Now and before I take you on a little journey back in time, around 3000 years ago, I want you to contemplate on this paradoxical ratio 1:700, and try to answer this simple question; what if there was someone who, you were told, talked of you hundreds and hundreds of times, citing places and stories he said had shared with you, only you don’t know who he is or what the hell he is talking about … what do you call that person? … A liar!  A deluded person!  … or maybe someone who is trying to steal your thunder.

If that is your answer, then we’re having a common ground for my following argument. If not, then, hop on my time machine and let’s visit the ancient Egyptian empire at its zenith.

Once mentioned but never again

King Merneptah Stele – 1208 BC

The only time Israel was mentioned in the ancient Egyptian texts, the most meticulous and coherent of the world’s ancient civilizations and which covered the chronicles of nearly 3000 years, was in Merneptah Stele, a black granite slab engraved with a description of the victories of king Merneptah- son of the great Ramses II- in a military campaign against the Meshwesh Libyans and their Sea People allies, but its final two lines, line 26 & 27, refer to a prior military campaign in Canaan in the Near East.

The stele which dates to about 1208 BC was discovered by renowned British archaeologist Flinders Petrie at Thebes in 1896.

The Inscription contains a hymn and a list of the Pharaoh’s military victories.   A tribe, whom Merenptah had victoriously smitten”I.si.ri.ar?”Or as Petrie quickly suggested that it read: “Israel!” is on the list of conquests.  The mention of Israel is very short; it simply says, “Israel is laid waste, its seed is no more.”

Watch the video of the Merneptah Stele as dispalyed in the Egyptian museum

However, a number of alternative readings for the text “I.si.ri.ar” have been suggested and debated. The most common alternative suggested is that of Jezreel (city) or the Jezreel Valley.

This was the first extra-biblical Egyptian source to mention the tribe of Israel and the last one for that matter.

Yes, maybe the tribe, not the kingdom, of Israel had been mentioned in King Merneptah Stele, but it was ascertained to be completely devastated and existed no more. Interestingly enough, the Israelites were depicted (with distinctive hieroglyphs) in the Egyptian stele as Bedouins/nomads who were always on the move and who never settled in one place/city- contrary to the Israelite story of invasion and settlement they have been raving about during long centuries of silent Egyptian records- the ancient Egyptian writing, Hieroglyphs, has been deciphered in 1822 by Jean Francois Champollion

Israel in hieroglyphs ( in Merneptah Stele )

While the other defeated Egyptian enemies listed besides Israel in Merneptah stele such as Ashkelon, Gezer and Yanoam( cities to be inhabited later by pelset/philistines )were given the determinative for a city-state—”a throw stick plus three mountains designating a foreign country”—the hieroglyphs that refer to Israel instead employ the determinative sign used for foreign peoples: a throw stick plus a man and a woman over three vertical plural lines. This sign is typically used by the Egyptians to signify nomadic tribes without a fixed city-state, thus implying that ysrỉꜣr “Israel” was the demonym for a seminomadic population who were always on the move at the time the stele was created.

Unlike the old school of biblical archeology, which grabbed the spade in one hand and the bible in the other, modern archeologists describe their approach as one which views the Bible as one of the important artifacts into which centuries of Near Eastern cultural accumulations [Egyptian, Phoenician and Sumerian] had been integrated and sometimes copycatted [but] not the unquestioned narrative framework every archaeological find has to fit into.

Despite the scarcity of archeological finds that corroborate the veracity of the Hebrew bible’s narrative, modern archeology doesn’t deny the Israelites existed; rather it states they only existed quite differently.

For example, current Egyptology and Archaeology deny that there was an Exodus. Instead, they say that this is a confused memory of the Expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt while stressing the fact that Hyksos had nothing to do with the Israelites.

Since relentless excavations of Canaan/Palestine by Israeli and western archeologists since the beginning of the  twentieth century only widened the gap between the historical truth as academics know it and the tales of the Hebrew bible, I thought maybe we could look for the missing part somewhere else.  And since more consistent and reliable documentation is needed, we should therefore try and look for the truth in Egypt.

Egyptian hegemony over the Levant / Canaan

Relief depicting King Ramses II smiting his enemies

The bible chronology ironically places the exodus at around 1200BC, in the same period king Merneptah and his father Ramsses II ruled over Egypt, whose documented legacy speaks nothing of, or even close to, this Hebrew tale of “Great Escape” from the Nile valley.

On the contrary, king Merneptah leaves behind no tales of bewitched snakes or parting sea but only his famous stele which bears witness to the devastation of the Hebrew tribe.

The ancient Egyptian civilization depended entirely upon geography and that’s what mainly distinguished it from the Mesopotamian civilization.

The land of Egypt enjoyed many natural barriers; there were deserts to the east and west of the Nile River, and mountains to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. This isolated the ancient Egyptians and allowed them to develop a truly distinctive culture.

While Ancient Egyptian Empire was centered around the Nile River, Egypt’s kings consistently affirmed their control far and beyond the country’s eastern borders and spread their influence over a great chunk of the Levant in order to secure trade routes and relations with eastern powers.

So the territory known today as Palestine/Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and South Syria was practically under Egyptian sovereignty with fortified military garrisons and castles all over the area.  And hence the hilarious part of the exodus tale is exposed. For you don’t exit the US by fleeing New York and heading for Massachusetts.  Sinai and Canaan was very much Egyptian territory at the time.

The chieftains of Canaan’s tribal communities and leaders of the small cities had to pledge loyalty to the mighty king of Egypt.  In return they would be granted his majesty’s protection and support in times of hardships. (Have you ever heard of Egyptian presence in Canaan in the narrative of the Hebrew bible, I don’t think so)

An example to the Egyptian hegemony over the Levant / Canaan, particularly during the new kingdom (1570 – 1070 BC), is the valley of Meggido.

Megiddo is the biblical city of Armageddon that stands above the plain where, at the end of the world, the final/ mythological battle between the armies of the Lord and the kings of the earth will be fought out, as the Book of Revelations tells (Revelations 16:16).

According to the documented/orthodox history, besides being the place of one of the greatest battles in the Egyptian empire, Meggido was merely one of those obscure tribal centers concentrated in land valleys and scattered along the Egyptian international trade roads. Its semi-nomadic people earned their living by shearing wool from sheep.

And to get a clearer picture of how the so called biblical cities depended entirely on Egyptian protection and support and how it was essential for their chieftains/leaders to show their unflinching loyalty to the Egyptian monarchy; Here is one of the famous Amarna letters, discovered in 1887, in which Biridiya, the chieftain of Meggido is practically groveling for the help of king Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten, 1350-1334 BC).

Notice that Biridiya is addressing the king of Egypt as “my lord, my god and son” and not as “Pharaoh”- another Biblical myth the writer of this essay consistently refutes.

Read: Debunking the Israelite Myth: Ancient Egypt Knew No Pharaohs

Letters from Biridiya of Megiddo

“To the king, my Lord and my God and Sun, thus speaks Biridiya, the loyal servant of the king:  At the feet of the king, my Lord and my God and Sun, seven times and seven times I prostrate myself.
 
May the king know that since the archers have gone back, Labayu [chieftain of  Shechem/ biblical town of Jacob and where Joseph is allegedly buried] carries out acts of hostility against me, and that we cannot shear the wool and that we cannot pass through the gate in the presence of Labayu, since he knows that you have not given (me) archers; and now he intends to take Meggido, but the king will protect his city so that Labayu does not seize her. In truth, the city is destroyed by death as a result of pestilence and disease. Grant me one hundred garrison troops to guard the city, lest Labayu take it. Certainly, Labayu has no another intentions. He tries to destroy Meggido.”

So the biblical city of Meggido was so small and feeble that 100 garrison troops were enough to secure and defend it against a takeover by another tribe. And that was during a period of time supposedly referred to in the Israelite history as the Settlement in Canaan (Judges Period)

Geopolitics and landscape of ancient Canaan

Canaan on the map

Actually the Hebrew bible sketched such a misleading landscape for the land of Canaan; it is depicted as an attraction site for different peoples that even the god of the Israelites, who obviously suffered from geographical illiteracy, eyed it as his promised land.

Canaan’s miscellaneous landscape, framed by sea and desert, by Egypt and Anatolia, part bad lands, part green plains, never lent itself to the notion of nationhood. In the mountains it was hard enough to survive, let alone indulge in the luxury of court politics. And in the plains, the cities of central and southern Canaan were all on the ancient highways, on the roads to somewhere else, between Egypt and the Hittites and Mesopotamia

Moreover, the biblical description is obviously unfamiliar with the geopolitical reality in Palestine. Palestine was under Egyptian rule until the beginning of the first millennia BC. The Egyptians’ administrative centers were located in Gaza, Yaffo and Beit She’an. Egyptian presence has also been discovered in many locations on both sides of the Jordan River.

This striking presence is not mentioned in the biblical account, and it is clear that it was unknown to the author/Hebrew scribe and his editors

Moreover, the archaeological findings blatantly contradict the biblical picture: the Canaanite cities were not ‘great,’ were not fortified and did not have sky-high walls – as in the notorious story of the walls of Jericho. The heroism of the conquerors, the few versus the many and the assistance of the God who fought for his people is but a theological reconstruction lacking any factual basis.

Though Merneptah stele was the only Egyptian reference to mention Israel, but it wasn’t the only reference on military campaigns in Palestine/Canaan. Other Egyptian kings from the new kingdom(1550 – 1069 BC) have left us valuable inscriptions (on stele and temple walls) that documented many of their battles in Canaan as did king Ramses II in his famous battle with the Hittites in Kadesh (1274 BC)- though the documents of the battle, one of the earliest in history, made references to the major Canaanite/Levantine cities at the time, none of the biblical towns as frequently cited in the Hebrew’s holy book, were ever mentioned in the Kadesh chronicles.

The sea peoples’ invasion of Canaan

In Year 8 of the reign of king Ramsses III, the Sea Peoples, most arguably from the Aegean & the Ionian islands, dared to wage an unprecedented offensive war against Egypt by land and sea.  King Ramsses III defeated them in two victorious land and sea battle (1178 BC)

This battle has been described as ‘the first naval battle in history’. The details of the combat are meticulously recorded on the walls of the mortuary temple of king Ramesses III at Thebes/Medinet Habu– one of the largest and best-preserved temples in Egypt.

Although he had defeated the Sea Peoples, king Ramsses III could not ultimately prevent some of them (specifically the Peleset/philistines) from eventually settling in Canaan and Palestine some time after his death

At Medinet Habu Ramses III displayed the names (with their stylized images) of seven of his defeated enemies who constituted the belligerent coalition of the sea peoples along with the then major political players in Canaan, who were either defeated or tempted to join the sea people’s incursion on Egyptian borders:

The names on the inscription were:

(Hittites) The wretched chief of Kheta as living captive.
(Amorites) The wretched chief of Amor.
(Tjekker) Chieftain (lit. the Great One) of the foe of Thekel (TAkwrA).
(Sherden) Sherden (SArAdAnA) of the sea.
(Bedouins) Chieftain of the foe of Sha[su] (SA ///).
(Teresh) Teresh (tjwrASA) of the sea.
(Philistines) Chieftain of the Pe[leset] (pw //////).

The Bible paints the Philistines – one of the identified seven factions of the belligerent coalition against Ramsses III – as the main enemy of the Israelites with a state of almost perpetual war between the two peoples, that was often embroidered with mythical tales of heroism (David vs. goliath)

Since the battle of king Ramsses III took place at a time leading up, according to the Israelite chronology, to the United Monarchy (1030-931 BC) one would anticipate, if Ramsses III’s infantry units were forced into combat with all the major players in Canaan including the Hittites, Amorites and the Philistines, to find Israel/Israelites amongst them.

But again, that was not the case. The well preserved records of Ramsses III’s battle in Canaan insist but to exclude the Israelites out of the historical/geopolitical scene of the region and paradoxically few years prior to the establishment of David & Solomon alleged kingdom.

And while we could easily distinguish the philistines among the engraved inscriptions on the walls of Medinet Habu, the Israelites are nowhere (in the Egyptian documentation) to be found.
Now, the obvious question is where in the archaeological record are the Israelites that King Merneptah fought?

Ze’ev Herzog

However, Prof. Ze’ev Herzog of the Archaeology Faculty at the University of Tel Aviv, asserts that there is no evidence in the archaeological record that Israel was ever a powerful force, whether at the time of the Merneptah stele’s creation or at any other time during that general period.

The conditions in ancient Palestine were inhospitable for urban settlement nor the development of any kingdom for that matter, and certainly no showcase projects such as the Egyptian shrines/temples or the Mesopotamian palaces could have been established there.

The Egyptian documents make no mention of the Israelites’ presence in Egypt and are also silent about the events of the Exodus. Nevertheless, the documents do mention the custom of nomadic shepherds to enter Egypt during periods of drought and hunger and to camp at the edges of the Nile Delta. However, this was not a solitary phenomenon: such events occurred frequently over thousands of years and were hardly exceptional.

In his article “Deconstructing the Walls of Jericho“, appearing in Ha’aretz (29 October 1999), Ze’ev Herzog calls the mention of Israel on the stele a reference to “population group of nomads” who most probably were always on the move, looking for fertile land to herd their animals. In the article Herzog concludes

“Following 70 years of intensive excavations in the Land of Israel, archaeologists have found out: The patriarchs’ acts are legendary stories, we did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus, and we did not conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David and Solomon. Those who take an interest have known these facts for years, but Israel is a stubborn people and doesn’t want to hear about it.”

Many historians today agree that at best, the stay in Egypt and the exodus events occurred among a few families and that their private story/vague memory/ folk tale was expanded and ‘nationalized’ to fit the needs of theological ideology- very much similar to how modern-day Zionism has nationalized those remote and inconsistent Jewish tales to serve its political project in Palestine.

Having clarified that chapter of the history of the Egyptian empire in late Bronze Age during which it controlled all of Canaan and practically most of the Levant I think it is becoming less of a puzzle for us why Egypt hardly mentioned or referred to Israel in its records whereas the Israelites were raving about Egypt all the time.

While Egyptians were occupied with the task of weaving the fabric of a unique culture and building an empire, the Israelites were busy telling fables and fictitious stories that grew bigger all the time as they wandered around.

48 thoughts on “In Ancient Egypt, Canaan revisited without Israel

  1. Brilliant analysis!

    Zahi Hawass underscored may years ago that the supposed Exodus was really the expulsion of the Hyksos and even Sigmund Freud wrote that the biblical story of the exodus did not make any real sense if studied rationally. And when you add in the Temple Pomegranate and Jehoash Tablet forgeries, you begin to see the entire Old Testament (and the religious foundation for the state of Israel) rests on a fantasy from thousands of years ago created by primitive tribal nomads trying to convince themselves that they mattered.

    Like

    • Thank you Mr. Rivero.

      It’s always a pleasure to see your comments on my posts.
      And you’re right about the Israelites’ stories.
      If we are to unlock the future, we first have to find the keys to the past
      Peace.

      Like

      • Sadly, I’m not well traveled. I did visit Iran, however, and while in a caravansarie on the edge of the salt desert under a grand blue sky, our guide explained how merchants from Venice to Timbuktu to Beijing gathered under the stars at night and shared the stories of their homes. “That is where the bible was written,” he said. Indeed. The bible is a collection of cultural ‘borrowings,’ shall we say. If Jesus existed at all, it is equally likely that he was Egyptian or Persian or Roman as that he was a Jew.

        Like

    • YOU ARE CORRECT MR RIVERO!!!, however there were hebrews that were allowed to live on the outskirts of ancient egypt and when the hyksos invaded the hebrews fought along side them instead of aiding the egyptians that allowed them to settle in their lands, Then it was Ahmose the 1st of the 18th dynasty that expelled the hyksos. After expelling the hyksos it was only natural their allies (who betrayed the egyptians) had to leave as well.

      There was no parting of the red sea they WALKED into egypt and WALKED out. If you reference a map you can clearly see one can walk from egypt(africa) right into the so called middle east.

      Liked by 1 person

    • Please see on youtube. “The bible unearthed” It gives all the evidence against exodus etc and comes to the conclusion that it was all invented in the 7th century BC.

      Like

  2. An excellent book is THE WANDERING WHO by Gilad Aztmon. Now we face an insane war with Israel trying to bring the USA into WWIII. This biblical fantasy is certainly causing trouble for the Palestinians rotting in outdoor prisons like Gaza and camps everywhere.

    Like

  3. Brilliant and amazing explanation of the history behind the “bible stories.”

    The trouble is that most people believe a narrative outside of what they were taught by their respective religious indoctrinations is heresy; and so, will, under threat of perdition, reject such history no matter the evidence.

    I can’t help but wonder how much of the missing historical record was lost when the library at Alexandria was burned.

    Like

  4. Andis Kaulins has suggested that many of the dramatis personae of the Hebrew bible are histories of Ancient Egyptians: e.g. David=Sethos, Solomon=Ramses II, Moses=Sinuhe

    http://www.ancientegyptweblog.blogspot.co.uk/

    On the question of the location of Israel, may it not have been coexistent in Canaan, simply referring to where the worshippers of El (Allah) lived ie not a physical location at all.

    Like

  5. It is my impression that the writing of history, based essentially on what can be proven, is a fairly modern invention; probably not more than about four or five hundred years old. There are a few surprising examples of reliable written histories from much earlier times, but they stand out because they go against the general trend of propaganda and historiography. It makes sense to view the Bible as essentially myth – a tale of our inner landscape, rather than the outer, physical world in which we live.

    Like

  6. Amazing article, Dr. Ezzat. Thank you for taking the time to go through so much information. It is fascinating (and a bit scary) to think how easily illogical and fallible information can become fortified in the vast majority of the global population. Terrifying might be the better word. This kind of thing underlines the fact that history is manipulated and changed to fit the plans/desires of those who seek to control.

    Thank you again for your information. Looking forward to reading more.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Susannah Heschel’s tract against the research of German schools that sought to pry the “human Jesus” from the Hebrew/Old Testament-origins matrix suggests to me that Jewish rage against Germans in 20th century had at least an element of fear of Jewry being discovered as a cultural theft/fraud. Castigating Germans/Nazis as “racist” for their claim of return to Aryan cultural roots is a mischaracterization of what was actually happening: Germans, or Hitler, anyway, did see the Aryan cultural traditions — especially as interpreted by Wagner — as superior to Jewish practices that were being imposed on Germany in Weimar.

      Like

      • Now you’re trying to rewrite history as well. Trying to describe the Nazi ideology of so-called “Aryan supremacy” as being based on something other than racism is sheer lunacy. The nazis’ own propaganda material made the case that they were biologically superior to other races (which is indeed racist). While the Hebrew stories might be mostly mythology, so is your attempt to present nazism as simply a form of “cultural pride” instead of a belief in white racial supremacy.

        Like

  7. Professional historians are liars by definition. Otherwise, their regurgitations would not be published. The biblical narratives belong to mythology, are pure fiction.
    Parasitic Jews, always in want of new prey, have produced many legends of their persecution. They excel in confusing the vocabulary. They howl “persecution”, when “prosecution” should be the correct term.
    Let the mighty Egypt regain his power and liquidate this menace to mankind – Israel.

    OPEN THE GAZA PRISON, NOW!

    Like

  8. Merenptah means “Beloved of Ptah”…aka Buddha. Ptah imagery at Saqqara (Sha karra) in the Hall of Kings, the Hall of Sokar (touregypt.net has an alternate pronuciation of Choiek/Shokar) shows Thutmose III (a “David” typecasting) making an offering to a seated Ptah, with Sokar and Amun standing behind him.

    Can we all say it together? S(h)okar Amun Ptah. Shakamuni Buddha.

    The entire story of the “Fall of Troy” actually relates to the succession battle of the many sons of Ramses II. (Ra Moses, “son of Ra/Rama”) Google : Is the Fall of Troy actually the invasion of the sea peoples” and be amazed. Ramses II is the biblical “Solomon” king…but far from the greatest or the first. He usurped the temples and stables of the Great “Solomon” king: Amenhotep III. And he wasn’t the first either…a Kassite king was…aka Kas-kas…aka Hyksos.

    Priam? An Egyptian pharaoh. “Achilles”: the pharaoh Siptah….born with a deformed foot, easily found photos on internet. The “Teresh” mentioned are the Trojans….aka the Etruscans.

    The Pelest you correctly identified as “Philistines” although Palestinians is better translation.

    of course, the Stele is talking about Jezreel, not “Israel”…how do we know this? Because Jezreel is where what was stored???? SEEDS. What does it say? “The SEED of Jezreel is no more!”

    Look, someone above mentioned Andis Kaulins. Go to Lexiline.com. Go to index. Click on “Ark of the Covenant”….guess where is was found? In Amenhotep III’s grandson’s tomb: Tut.

    Solomon’s Treasure is the treasure found in Tut’s tomb. Hidden there by 5 Amun priests. Priests that were called “Cohen Gadols.” The Mishnayot tells the tale of it being hidden…..go read Andis Kaulins amazing deciphering of the truth behind the “Hebrew” history. Go to Wikipedia, look up Kassite Stele. See the “Houses”? See the Harp of “David” on one? Beneath an image of Venus? THAT is the image of Istar, who played a Harp.

    Venus: Istar Devatta. Venus: the Star of David.

    “David” had a sex change. And in the “House” next to “David’s”? Is a camel in a House. Under an image of the Sun (Sol) and Moon (Mon/Mun). In the OT, a certain “Zalumeneh and Zeba are murdered while riding a camel. That would be Solomon and Sheba.
    Sol a moon. Solomon. Istar’s husband was the Storm god of the Hittites. His name? Tae Sheba.

    She was literally the Queen of (Tae) Sheba. A king is recorded on stone tablet (Amarna letters) of sending a Statue of Istar to Amenhotep III to “heal him”…she was the goddess of fertilty.

    In the OT…Solomon gets Sheba pregnant: SUCCESS! EGYPTIAN/BABYLONIAN/INDIAN ASTROLOGICAL MYTHS. The “Hebrews” are western Bramha worshipers from the Sarai River valley, known as the Puru kingdom. Hence, the “father of the Jews/Hebrews” was called Abram, then Abraham. A BRAHMA. Amenhotep III’s “vizier: Yuya was the OT’s Yoseph(Joseph)…and his brother was the great Puru Indian king named Dhritastera….Ashtera being another name of Istar.

    The fools in mainstream archaeology call him “Tushratta.” HE was the GREAT KING…a PURU king…The pharaohs of the 18th dynasty had a “Golden Horus” name…”HePeru”…Hebrews. Purus.

    The Book of Ester is the story of Istar worship supplanting the older goddess of eastern Hindu mythology. Check the name of the queen she replaced against the name of the Hindiu goddess: same name.

    The image of the Mother Cow of Hindu is the image of the goddess Egyptian called Hathor….the Eye of Ra being the right eye of the Hindu mother cow: Rama.

    Like

  9. The history of Egypt itself is a great thing to read. most of the modern inventions have their base in Egypt. especially astronomy. the people there were great observers and and eventhough stiill the universe is a mystery the early recordings of the observations helped the current technology to depend on so many things. their command over geometry was great and most of the maths problems were solved my Egyptians.

    Liked by 1 person

  10. Apparently Egyptians cannot accept being defeated by the Jewish people so they probably deleted every mention of their enemies. You may continue to avoid the truth.

    Like

      • I apologize that my previous comment was garbled due to not being able to type as fast as I was thinking plus poor proofing.

        I really appreciate the work you are doing as we are prisoners of ignorance… enslaved by those who use (abuse) history to control us.

        I know I’m asking too much — or asking for speculation — but, can you offer any guesses as to how much and the types of historical record that was destroyed at the Great Library of Alexandria?

        It is my understanding (correct me where I am wrong) that early Christians/Catholics had killed the remaining Egyptian Priests and sacked the library to burn the documents — was this done to destroy records that were detrimental to the church’s doctrines or an act of mass hysteria?

        Like

      • “It is my understanding (correct me where I am wrong) that early Christians/Catholics had killed the remaining Egyptian Priests and sacked the library to burn the documents — was this done to destroy records that were detrimental to the church’s doctrines or an act of mass hysteria?”

        Like

  11. Pingback: W starożytnym Egipcie – ponowne odwiedziny w Kaanan bez Izraela « Stop Syjonizmowi

  12. come on .. next you’ll be telling me Camelot, King Arthur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table didn’t actually exist.

    Like

  13. Thanks, Dr. Ashraf Ezzat, for bringing this to our attention.
    I’m interested in the influence of Persians, especially on Yehud and Old Testament, as well as on development of Christianity. Can you talk about the contact between Egypt and Persia?

    I have to admit I’m not a big fan of Jewry. imo a great deal of cultural ‘plagiarism’ has gone on, and other people have been made to suffer. Of particular interest is the reaction of emancipated Jews in Europe in mid-1800s to archeological discoveries in Mesopotamia, Palestine, Egypt. Around this period, Jews in Israel, Germany, and England began to reframe the bible to make it more readily integrated into the prevailing Christian worldview; they put the hyphen into Judeo-Christian. see Alan Levenson, http://www.amazon.com/The-Making-Modern-Jewish-Bible/dp/1442205164/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1333969246&sr=1-1
    Today, Amy Jill Levine is prominent in a movement to completely ‘Jewishize’ the New Testament.

    Like

  14. Bravo Professor Herzog, BRAVO! This article must be read by every student and child.
    Knock the foundation asunder the entire structure collapses under the weight of its own lies.
    The other two ‘revealed’ religions seem to have little footing to stand on.

    Joseph Wheless did a fine job in his own time of debunking the fable called the OT, but organized religion has gone to great lengths to keep his words silent. Thankfully his thoughtful and accurate assessments are still available:

    http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/joseph_wheless/is_it_gods_word/

    …..So the Old Testament of the bible can now take its place alongside Alice in Wonderland, Grimm’s Fairy Tales and Gulliver’s Travels? I’m shocked I tell you SHOCKED! Now can we stop all this anti-Semitic genocide and give the Palestinian people back their land??
    It is widely speculated that King Josiah WROTE the OT in about 750bc and claimed to have “found” it. Immediately thereafter he banned all other religions and pretended the Yahwehism was always the religion of those people. Yet another deception. Is there anything they don’t lie about?

    Alas….the necessity of disillusionment.

    What next??? The holocaust didn’t happen???

    Like

    • It cannot be implied that the holocaust never happened because one did….just not exclusively to the Jews. The historical records of the American Red Cross confirmed this fact. The current historical record of the entire 20th century was fabricated to serve only this tribe’s agenda.

      Dr. Ezzat’s brilliant essay is just one more piece to this gargantuan puzzle on the origin of Judaic history effectively dismantling their perceived exclusivity above all others.

      Like

  15. Pingback: Ancient Israel, as we know it, never existed! | Pragmatic Witness

  16. Also you are correct about them being tribal nomads the fact is the jews much like the arab are basically an AD people and do not have any history of significance to then

    Like

  17. Pingback: Dolphins’ Superior Ability to Heal May Help Humans « Pyramidion

  18. We’re going to believe this on this guy’s say-so? Maybe he’s right, maybe not. Each should research arguments for and against, then come to a conclusion that is defensible. After that, see how it stands up against the opposing position.
    WW2 wasn’t so long ago such that a plethora of records are easily available.

    Like

  19. Hi Dr Ashraf Ezzat

    First I want to complement you on your article as its makes for an interesting read. But I beg to differ for the reason that I wouldn’t depend or rely upon Egyptian History to know whether Israel existed or not in the ancient times. Because whoever studies Egyptian history about its Kings especially. The pattern we see is all the hieroglyphics, art and walls sings about the achievements of its Pharaohs and never its failures. The countless number of National geographic documentaries by Zahi Hawass has shown that there has always been Pharaohs who erased the previous names of the Pharaohs and put their names in its place so as to show the achievements as their own. So naturally I wouldn’t expect them to record the ten plagues they faced nor the red sea parting or the exodus.

    Like

  20. Tom,

    I was just thinking the same thing as I read thru the tirade of anti semitic biblical critique of history. Would a proud Egyptian Pharoah allow any mention of their embarrassing defeat
    by a bunch of unarmed slaves ever be written down for posterity? What about
    the Exodus archeological findings in Saudi Arabia? Historically, Egypt recognized
    Canaan around 1500 BC, Jerichos walls fall down around 1550 BC(carbon dating) and by 1000 BC Israel is recognized where Canaan once was. All this shows the story could have happened as told, and there is no proof that it didn’t. ie. No record isn’t the same as a negative proof.
    Just as in the Egyptian monuments, I find many of the Bible deniers commenting here to also appear to have political motives. Egypt currently is just as interested in
    denying Israel as it would have been back in the Exodus.

    Like

  21. Pingback: W starożytnym Egipcie - ponowne odwiedziny w Kaanan bez Izraela - Wolna Polska - Wiadomości

  22. The biblical story was written down in the late first temple period, say around 600 BC (it is only songs embedded within the text that are older, such as the “song of the sea” that passed down verbatim from before the Judean/Israelite kingdoms). So sure, they are likely to be exaggerated stories. A much more coherent story would be one in which the Israelite population grew out of the Canaanite population around 1200 BC (well, a bit before given the Merneptah stella from 1208BC). After all they spoke the same language, had similar pottery and and worshipped the same gods (counter to the biblical account, archeology teaches us that the late 11 century israelites worshiped several deities from the canaanite pantheon. El and his wife Ashera were the most prominent ones, it is only towards the end of the first temple period that israelite religion became monotheistic, archeology also teaches us that there was a king david, and by around 1000 BC there was a small kingdom with fortified forts around it).

    However, I wouldn’t discount some influx that came from Egypt. Egypt didn’t have control over Canaan continuously, certainly not during the bronze age collapse that happened at that time, and which may have been the origin of the Hebrews, when all hell broke loose in the area.

    Anyway, you write:
    “While Egyptians were occupied with the task of weaving the fabric of a unique culture and building an empire, the Israelites were busy telling fables and fictitious stories that grew bigger all the time as they wandered around.”

    It sounds as if you have something personal against the Israelites and probably against the Israelis today. And in order to feel good with yourself, you have to boast the importance of the ancient Egyptian culture. Sure, the ancient Egyptians had a magnificent culture. Unfortunately however, the Greeks diluted it out during the Ptolemy kingdom, and the Christians wiped that out, and to make sure, the Arabs wiped the Christians as well (well, tried to, there are still the Copts, but they aren’t having the best of time in Egypt.). So nothing of their culture really remained, except in museums. On the other hand, the very modest Israelite kingdom developed a modest egalitarian culture (without classes, even slaves caught in war had to be released after seven years), and its religion spawned both Christianity and Islam, and its moral values were the basis of western culture. So big and strong is not necessarily to be impressive.

    As for telling fables, the funny thing is that although the Israelite account is probably exaggerated, the only mention of Israel by an Egyptian is definitely exaggerated. It says that “Israel is laid waste, left no seed”, it is obviously an exaggeration given that Israel is alive and kicking, as is Egypt, 3200 years after.

    Like

  23. Pingback: Exodus Buy-bull Journal Part 2 of 3 | The Buy-bull Journal

  24. I agree with Neil that there seems to be a hidden agenda in this essay and some definite bias. Consider, in the mid 1990s the Tel Dan Stele, written by a Syrian King in he ninth century BC refers to both the house of David and names both king of Judah and of Israel, was unearthed. Also the Assyrian steels mention Israel and Judah, other independent sources which prove the existence of both kingdoms. Would one doubt the authenticity of the Romans who destroyed the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem and carried the spoils back to Rome to underwrite cost of building Coliseum?

    The fact that Egypt only mentions Israel in one Steele only means that nothing else has been unearthed to date there. All other conclusions are a stretch to say the least and seems to me to be mixing current political bi with history.

    Like

  25. The myth of Israel is responsible for millions of deaths,including WWII.Zionists in collusion with the Nazis eliminated the elderly,cripples,insane any Khazars(Ashkenazi Jew?) the Zionists deemed undesirable.Zionism & Nazis founded so called israel.Similar Race Laws of NUremberg now apply to Israel.Israeli citizens of Palestinian descent are subject to over 30 laws directed at them and they are under Israeli Army law virtually without any legal rights.Palestinian children are allowed only half the amount of water an Israeli child is allowed.As Europe and the world becomes tired of the Israel lies,the Israelis are setting the stage for their final demise

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s